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Annotations

Issue #2 of year 2022

RUSSIAN MEDICINE THROUGH THE PRISM OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTION

Author(s): Regina G. Ivanova, Anton Y. Ivanov

Annotation: () : / . .., . .: , 2021. 388

Keywords: history of medicine, medical geography, Russian Empire


ASSESSMENT OF THE INNOVATIVE POTENTIAL OF HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS BY WAY OF EXAMPLE OF A LARGE MULTIFIELD HOSPITAL

Author(s): Artem V. Bullikh

Annotation: The article concerns the analysis of the possibilities of using the innovative potential of the healthcare organization. The author describes the key features of the methodology of a comprehensive assessment of the operation of the diagnostic service of a multifield clinical hospital in the metropolitan city. The author proposes some courses of innovative development of the clinical diagnostic laboratory on the basis of a strategic plan. In addition, the author analyzes the socio-economic efficiency of the activities carried out based on a number of indicators. The author provides some statistical data on the performed studies, the dynamics of changes in the average salary of employees, the dynamics of changes in the payroll, and the dynamics of changes in the number of employees of the clinical diagnostic laboratory. The author considers the results of the introduction of innovative management methods in the activities of the clinical diagnostic laboratory. The author reveals an increase in the number of studies performed, an increase in the headcount of staff, as well as of the wage fund. The author finally concludes that intensive development of the diagnostic service is possible through innovative activities.

Keywords: innovation potential, healthcare institutions, laboratory service, performance indicators


PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF COSTS ARISING FROM CHANGING ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY SCHEMES IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN THE SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC

Author(s): Yulia Sh. Gushchina, Haitham Yuones, Elena V. Binenko

Annotation: The aim of the study was to optimize the approach to the treatment of HIV-infected patients in the Syrian Arab Republic based on pharmacoeconomic analysis data. The authors studied the medical records of 201 patients diagnosed with HIV, registered with the National AIDS Center in Damascus at the end of 2018 and receiving antiretroviral therapy. The authors revealed that the initial HIV treatment regimen had been very frequently changed, due to adverse drug reactions (48.5 % cases). The authors analyzed the change in the cost of treatment when replacing antiretroviral therapy regimens depending on the reason for such replacement, and learnt the cost of various antiretroviral therapy regimens. The average cost of the 2nd line treatment regimen per month was 4 times higher than the average cost of the 1st line therapy, which is due to the use of expensive new generation drugs. When replacing the initially prescribed treatment regimen, the cost of drug provision for one patient increased by 10,017.40 rubles per month. The results of the pharmacoeconomical analysis conducted can be used when choosing the initial regimen of antiretroviral therapy and replacing it if necessary, which will reduce the high costs of frequent replacement of the treatment regimen.

Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, costs, pharmacoeconomic analysis, Syrian Arab Republic


FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF REFORMING THE NATIONAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE PERIOD 2001-2005

Author(s): Polina I. Ananchenkova, Alexander B. Zudin

Annotation: The article examines the mechanisms of financial support in the Russian healthcare system, which act as a factor in the quality of medical care for the population. The analysis of legislation in the field of healthcare at the start of reforms is carried out, data on the structure of state financing of expenditures of the healthcare system in the period 2001-2005 are presented. The financial support of the Russian healthcare system is implemented through a mixed budget-insurance model, consisting of budget funds allocated for free medical care programs for citizens and personal funds of the population applying for medical care on a paid basis. In the course of the study of the financial support of the health care system during the transformation period of 200-2005 and the impact of their consequences on the quality of medical care to the population, data from Rosstat, a report from the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, federal legislation, analytical data from the European Regional Office of the World Health Organization, etc. were used. The study allowed us to conclude that with the beginning of the transformation, the financing of the healthcare industry was insufficient, there were no institutional changes in the healthcare system. This led to the lack of the necessary hospital base, a sufficient number of infectious diseases doctors, stocks of personal protective equipment and respiratory support, as well as to a decrease in the level of sanitary and anti-epidemic culture of the population. Experts assessed the scale of the negative consequences later, with the outbreak of a new coronavirus infection and the development of the COVID-19 pandemic, when changes had to be made to the organization of the functioning of the health system in a peacetime emergency (epidemic) situation, which was accompanied by high excess mortality and required large and urgent financial investments.

Keywords: healthcare reforms, healthcare financing, financing structure, healthcare resources, medical care, quality level


DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN THE FIELD OF HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT

Author(s): Anna V. Fomina, Olga O. Shchegoleva, Rinat R. Moudarisov

Annotation: The article is devoted to the study of the process of promoting paid medical services in state medical organizations. In the conditions of the existing high competition in the medical services market, both in individual regions and throughout the country, the most important task of a medical organization is to develop a high- quality and effective promotion strategy. The characteristics of the medical services market in Russia by types and quantity of medical services are presented. The positions of the Federal Scientific Medical Research Centers, which belong to the group of medium ones from the standpoint of such a factor as the amount of attracted financial resources, are considered. To assess competitive positions in terms of the amount of funds raised, two indicators were used: the total amount of funds raised and their increase compared to the previous year. Promotion of paid medical services of Federal scientific medical research centers is very effective through the use of social networks, because. this resource allows you to effectively reach specific interest groups, despite the presence of a large number of social network users.

Keywords: paid medical services, medical services market, promotion, competition


MEASLES VACCINATION COVERAGE AND ELIGIBILITY IN CONAKRY 2021

Author(s): Kuyate Mariama Julde

Annotation: In Guinea, there is an increase in the incidence of measles. National immunization coverage with all vaccines is low, and measles vaccination coverage is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine vaccination coverage and identify factors associated with the reluctance of the population to be vaccinated. The study was conducted over a three-month period from 02/01/2021 to 04/30/2021, focusing on children aged 11-59 months and their mothers/nannies living in one of the five communes of the city of Conakry. Data processing was carried out using descriptive statistics and then multivariate logistic regression. Measles vaccination coverage was 64.9%. There is a difference in vaccination coverage depending on the municipality: it was higher in the municipality of Diksinn (71.8%) and lower in the municipality of Ratoma (54.8%). Level of education, religion, belief in vaccination, environmental influences, and considerations during the Covid 19 pandemic were factors associated with not vaccinating. Conclusion: The present study reports low vaccination coverage compared to the target set by WHO.

Keywords: measles, vaccination, Conakry, child


DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN THE FIELD OF HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT

Author(s): Anna V. Fomina

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of the use of digital educational resources in the training of specialists in the field of healthcare management. The key features of the methodology for expert evaluation of the development of digital educational programs are outlined and the main directions for evaluating effectiveness are proposed. The analysis of the positive and negative aspects of distance and digital learning in the masters program was carried out, while an increase in the volume of self-education in the masters program was noted. The influence of new teaching methods on the quality of the educational process is analyzed, it is revealed that in most cases the quality of education is increasing. The author of the article concluded that it is possible to introduce and develop digital educational programs in the field of healthcare management and the system of continuous medical education.

Keywords: digital educational programs, healthcare management, peer review, learning technologies, performance indicators


SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE ORGANIZATION OF DENTAL CARE FOR CHILDREN

Author(s): Kristina I. Mesropova

Annotation: The article is devoted to the introduction of new forms of organization of dental care for children based on the implementation of public-private partnerships. In her article, the author provides some results of a sociological survey of parents who applied for dental care for their children within the framework of the project Dental Care to Children. The author analyzes the choice of public and private dental organizations by parents, and determines the factors explaining this choice, among which the availability of material and technical equipment, the form of ownership of the organization and the pricing are decisive. The results were obtained, which showed a low level of medical activity of families, as well as some difficulties in informing parents about the need for annual dental examinations and sanitation of the oral cavity. The author identifies some factors influencing the statistics of attendance by citizens for medical dental care in private and public organizations. Having analyzed those factors, the author drew the conclusions allowing improve these indicators. The author concluded that it was possible to organize dental rooms at schools involving private medical clinics to improve the quality of dental treatment, prevent dental diseases, as well as inform parents and their children about the need to maintain dental health. This type of interaction will ensure a high level of dental care and educational activities, which in the future will help reduce the incidence rate among citizens.

Keywords: dental care, medical activity, disease prevention, public-private partnership, dental health, incidence rate


SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COVID-19 MORBIDITY IN THE MOSCOW REGION

Author(s): Elena V. Kaverina, Evgeny D. Dolgov

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of the social aspects of the incidence of COVID-19 in the Moscow region. The authors consider some frequent complications in patients hospitalized with coronavirus infection, as well as the presence of concomitant diseases and factors affecting these indicators. The authors demonstrate the frequency of occurrence of concomitant diseases and complications in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The authors revealed that in the structure of concomitant diseases, pathologies of the cardiovascular system and obesity were most often noted. As determined by the authors, the most frequent complication in patients was pneumonia. The influence of age on the presence of complications and concomitant diseases in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 was also revealed. The authors concluded that with age, patients have a higher incidence of complications (p < 0.001), and the probability of concomitant pathologies is also higher (p < 0.05). In addition, the authors constructed a ROC curve that proved that the probability of complications depended on age. The authors analyzed chances of the presence of concomitant diseases depending on gender, and found out that women had higher chances for some groups of diseases than men

Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, morbidity, severity of course, concomitant diseases


STIGMATIZATION AND DESTIGMATIZATION OF THE POLICE: A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROFESSION APPEAL

Author(s): Vladislav Yu. Dubrovsky

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of factors influencing the professional self-determination of young people and their choice of future professional activity. One of such factors is the image of the profession, which is built on the basis of stigmatized and destigmatized characteristics. In his article, the author reviews research approaches to understanding the essence of professional self-determination, and works on the image of the profession. The author presents the results of his research on the influence of stigmatization and destigmatization of the image of a policeman on the choice of future professional activity by young people. The author concludes that the image of a policeman needs taking measures that destigmatize negative stable ideas about the activities of a law-enforcement officer. The mass media and propaganda can play the most significant role in this issue. Stigmatization and destigmatization of professional activity are components of the process of building the image and appeal of the profession, its popularity among young people. Speaking about the police activity as a scope of professional competencies, it is necessary to objectively assess the stable stereotypes that have developed in the public perception, since for the most part they have a negative character and can reduce the prestige of work in the internal affairs bodies.

Keywords: profession, image, appeal, stigmatization, destigmatization, youth, police, law-enforcement agencies


INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Author(s): Sergey Efimushkin, Anna Efimushkina

Annotation: This article considers approaches in solving the urgent problem of sustainable development and the viability of society. The role of innovation and entrepreneurship in the field of medicine and environmental protection is considered; the experience of various countries in improving innovation management and training in these areas is reviewed. The article considers and identifies the most significant directions in solving the problem of sustainable development and increasing the level of resilience of society. Improvement of innovation and entrepreneurship, creation and use of organizational structures to organize and support the development of innovative activities of enterprises and innovative projects, using business incubators, science parks, technopolises, competition poles, etc.; convergence of science and technology, multidisciplinary research and training, the use of synergy and technology convergence are all key areas in addressing the issue considered in the article. The article demonstrates the types of activities, techniques and ways in which enterprises and organisations can gain strategic advantage as a result of successful innovation and management improvement. Examples of effective use of technological convergence and multidisciplinary research from the experience of various countries in the field of medicine, public health and environmental protection in solving the problems of increasing the level of resilience of society are given. It is concluded that the synergy effect in the interaction: education research incubation economic activity is an accelerator in the creation of social and economic wealth in society.

Keywords: innovation, entrepreneurship, innovative training, technology convergence, business incubator, science park


THE POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN STATE AND THE DYNAMICS OF LIFE EXPECTANCY GROWTH IN THE COUNTRY

Author(s): Alexandre Artamonov

Annotation: The article is dedicated to the new methodology of Russian government which allowed to reduce the mortality and had given the extension of longevity in the country. The comparison had been made with Soviet period and some proposals built up to implement in Russia the best of medical programs which had existed already during Soviet period. Russia has just achieved the best result in the domain of reduction of post-natal mortality. This is the consequence of the policy of Ministry of Health but actually some problems are not yet resolved. However, its to be noticed: Russia is also dealing with medicine via Internet grid. This is important because the country is so big that its rather impossible to provide medical services to some citizens living far from civilization. The lifes expectancy now is lower than in developed countries but the progress is perfectly evident.

Keywords: lifes expectancy, mortality, longevity


SOCIALLY ORIENTED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PREVENTION OF CHRONIC NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES

Author(s): Vitaly I. Pak, Oleg E. Konovalov

Annotation: The article is devoted to the possibility of using a socially oriented approach in the prevention of chronic noninfectious diseases and the elimination of their lifestyle- related risk factors. The authors describe some features of the development of differentiated medical recommendations of a preventive nature, depending on the composition of the family, the level of education, attitude to health and medical activity of the family members. The authors provide some recommendations on the development of preventive, curative and rehabilitative potential of the family from the standpoint of health care. The authors also propose, along with socially oriented prevention technologies, creating family health-saving facilities (for example, family health centers, healthy food outlets, health schools, etc.). The author substantiate the feasibility of organizing Schools for chronically ill families, including their electronic counterparts. The authors demonstrate the criteria for a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of schools for patients, which criteria should include an analysis of the organization of such schools, a study of the volume, completeness and quality of the sanitary and educational work performed. The authors analyze some private (highly tailored) and complex (integrated) health-saving technologies.

Keywords: chronic noninfectious diseases, prevention, social orientation, health-saving technologies


NEUROLOGICAL PAIN OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM OF SCHOOL TEACHERS DURING REMOTE WORK DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC (BY WAY OF EXAMPLE OF TATARSTAN)

Author(s): Lyudmila V. Maksimenko, Adilya R. Nazyrova

Annotation: The article deals with the impact of forced inactivity of teachers due to the distant form of teaching during self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of neurological pain of the musculoskeletal system. The authors described the key features of the methodology for analyzing risk factors for neurological pain of the musculoskeletal system based on the results of a survey of Tatarstan teachers and based on statistical analysis in the IBM SPSS program. The prevalence of neurological pain was 85.3% [95%DI: 80.6 - 90.0%] in the sample (n=211), in groups by gender and discipline taught. The pains were characterized by their localization and the number of points of the musculoskeletal system affected by pain. The authors identified the risk factors for pain, namely, a low level of physical activity (according to self-assessment) and the duration of using electronic devices in the process of online teaching, given critical levels of more than 6 hours per day for neck and back pain and 8 hours per day for lower back and shoulder pain. The authors also described specific features of the pains in the context of their impact on sleep quality.

Keywords: school teachers, distant form of teaching, pain, musculoskeletal system


PROVISION BY THE STATE AUTHORITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION OF THE RIGHTS, FREEDOMS AND LEGITIMATE INTERESTS OF A CITIZEN AND A HUMAN

Author(s): Olga N. Ordina

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of the mechanism for protecting the human and civil rights and freedoms enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation through various state and interstate bodies. The author considers the following domestic guarantees of freedoms and human and civil rights: political, economic, legal and organizational. The author notes a special role of state authorities, whose activities are aimed at protecting the rights of citizens. The author identifies the following two main areas, where law enforcement agencies protect and exercise the rights of citizens: (i) protection of citizens from offenses, their prevention and suppression; and (ii) protection of citizens from illegal activities of administrative and public bodies. The author reveals the necessity of solving a large number of problems of a political, social, economic and spiritual nature, related, among other things, to ensuring the rights and freedoms of a man and a citizen. The author formulates the main directions of implementation of the protection of the rights of citizens in modern conditions in Russia. The author emphasizes a special role of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation in the protection of human and civil rights and freedoms. The author demonstrates the possibilities of international legal organizations, the right to appeal to which is enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, if domestic legal remedies have been exhausted.

Keywords: interests of a citizen, labor rights, freedoms, state authorities, social guarantees, legal guarantees


INFORMATION SECURITY IN THE SPHERE OF HEALTHCARE: PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

Author(s): Natalya I. Platonova, Kirill A. Ustilentsev, Tatiana A. Ustilentseva

Annotation: Information technology is now becoming increasingly widespread in all fields, and healthcare is no exception. Advanced digital innovations and breakthrough technological solutions make collecting, storing, processing and sharing information faster and more convenient, but at the same time, they increase the information security risks and threats. In such an environment, medical organizations become a target for cyberattacks, which makes the issue of developing a proper data protection mechanism the most relevant and significant for ensuring smooth operation of not only this or that medical organization, but the entire healthcare system of the country as a whole. However, the development and implementation of an information security system for medical organizations requires significant costs. Considering the above circs, the authors in their article study the most acute problems that require priority solution, as well as the prospects for ensuring information security in the healthcare sector. In the course of the study, the authors consider the relationship between critical data of a medical institution and threats to them on the part of intruders. Special attention is paid to vulnerabilities associated with the use of the achievements of the Internet of Things by healthcare institutions, and the risks of implantation of ransomware. Based on their analysis, the authors put forward a number of proposals for improving the information security system in the healthcare sector.

Keywords: information security (IS), medical institution, personal data, patients, cyberattack, ransomware, infrastructure


Issue #1 of year 2022

THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE EMPLOYMENT CLUSTER IN THE RUSSIAN LABOR MARKET ECOSYSTEM

Author(s): Yuliya V. Dolzhenkova, Anna A. Chub

Annotation: The article highlights the leading role of digitalization as a factor transforming labor relations between the subjects of the labor market of the Russian Federation. The main problems of the labor market that have worsened under the influence of digitalization are highlighted, including: the imbalance of labor supply and demand; low competitiveness of certain categories of citizens (including those of pre-retirement age); insufficient number of specialists in the field of employment promotion; difficult access to information about the market situation; low level of mobility of the population; growth of functional unemployment. The advantages of using the integrated application of institutional and cluster approaches, as well as ecosystem theory to form a unified conceptual and theoretical basis for the functioning of the labor market, which will serve as the basis for the organization of new promising forms of interaction of its subjects, as well as generally increase the efficiency of interaction of its structural elements by combining them into a single system, the fundamental task of which will be to provide the sectors of the national economy with competitive and highly professional personnel. The novelty of the study is that the labor market is proposed to be considered as an ecosystem functioning within a single information, digital and institutional space, one of the elements of which is a cluster of employment promotion. The main purpose, tasks and principles of the cluster are formulated, its architecture is proposed.

Keywords: labor market, employment, digitalization, institutional approach, ecosystem, information and digital space, cluster of employment promotion


THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM OF RESETTLEMENT OF COMPATRIOTS: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE RYAZAN REGION

Author(s): Sergey A. Kartashov, Ekaterina V. Dubrovina, Larissa N. Tokhtieva

Annotation: The article is devoted to the scientific analysis and understanding of the implementation of the program of resettlement of compatriots in the Russian Federation. The relevance of this topic is proved by the ongoing state policy. The authors analyze in detail the decline in the population in the country, as well as in its regions, which results in demographic and economic changes. The authors prove the effectiveness of the program in solving the problem of labor deficiency. The authors consider the purpose and main objectives of the program, some indicators, the algorithm for submitting documents for participation in the program, as well as the possibility of obtaining state support. The authors analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of the program of pilot regions. By way of example of the Ryazan region, the authors consider the main measures for the development and implementation of the program, some measures of legal and socio-economic support for displaced persons, and provide specific results. The authors describe the compatriots who arrived in the region by gender, age, education and occupation. The authors analyze the changes initiated by the supervising authorities together with law enforcement agencies. The conclusion is made about the importance of interdepartmental interaction, targeted approach in solving the adaptation problems of compatriots in new conditions, which helps reduce social tension, balance the domestic market and increases the degree of satisfaction.

Keywords: human resources, demography, migration, compatriots, support measures, interdepartmental interaction


WORKPLACE INNOVATION AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAILWAY INDUSTRY (By way of example of the European Union)

Author(s): Irina A. Sabirova

Annotation: In her article, the author discusses the issues of introducing innovative technologies into the system of social and labor relations and workplaces of railway companies. The author notes that the transition of railways to an open innovative business model was due to the confluence of social, economic and technological changes. Despite the great pressure of the business environment trends, the railway sector players are still reluctant to disclose their innovative strategy. Workplace innovation has not been a priority for the sector so far, because the sector has focused on technological innovation to adapt to market requirements. Railway companies thus face a big task to supply innovative products that ensure a quick and flexibility response to changing customer requirements. The author concludes that teamwork, internal cooperation and dialogue are necessary components for future response to new ideas and challenges. In addition, the author draws attention to the fact that the railway industry should adapt to the changes that are inevitable in a market economy.

Keywords: railway systems, management, efficiency, innovative technologies, workplace, teamwork, innovation implementation


THE EMPLOYMENT OF INTERNS: PRESSING PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

Author(s): Alexander Yu. Vedekhin

Annotation: The problems of employment of young people, graduates of higher educational institutions have always been relevant and have now acquired new specific characteristics in the context of digitalization of all spheres of society, changes in the education system and in the structure of the economy. In his paper, the author examines the organizational aspects of the employment of interns graduates from educational organizations. The author highlights the main problems of youth employment and factors affecting the efficiency of the graduate employment system. In recent years, we have seen a process of redistribution of roles between the state, educational organizations, employers and interns directly. This process relates the solution of the issue of promoting professional self-determination and the beginning of youth work; a multifactor measurable model is being formed that has a normative justification and regulations. The author concludes that due to the growing universitys interest in the practical orientation of the learning process, internships and practices of students undergo a transformation, moving away from formalism, and becoming truly working mechanisms for the temporary integration of the student into production. However, any educational institution will not succeed in this activity without the support of the state and the interest of business, and without a dialogue between subjects that meets the goals, interests and motives of each of the parties.

Keywords: graduates, employment, youth, unemployment, youth employment, interns


MULTIPLE EMPLOYMENT IN THE CONDITIONS OF PRECARIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL PERSONNEL

Author(s): Natalia S. Faiman

Annotation: In her article, the author analyzes the results of her empirical study of the conditions and nature of the work of scientists and higher educationalists. The author has revealed a significant amount of secondary employment, including multiple one, among all groups of employees in the academic sector, as well as the fact of a substantial excess of workload standards. The author emphasizes that this phenomenon has led to the formation of a kind of adaptation mechanism in conditions of insufficient and unstable wages at the main workplace and imperfections in the compensation plan of scientific and pedagogical personnel. This is largely due to the growing requirements for publications, as well as increased fears about job loss against the background of the restructuring of the scientific and educational organizations that has taken place in recent years. As a result, scientists and university teaching staff seek to diversify the risks of job loss through multiple employment, as well as to increase the aggregate level of their income. The author concludes that the tendencies of secondary and multiple employment have become part of the trend of precarization of the labor of scientists and educationalists in Russia. This often leads to overemployment and overwork, which negatively affects their health, social contacts, the quality of work performed and professional progress opportunities.

Keywords: precarious employment, precariat, scientists, university teachers, scientific and pedagogical personnel, multiple employment, secondary employment


PENSION SYSTEM OF THE USSR: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Author(s): Alexander P. Egorshin, IrinaV. Guskova

Annotation: The article is devoted to the topic of the pension system of the USSR, which is insufficiently developed in the domestic economic literature. The research was carried out on the materials of statistical collections characterizing the national economy of the USSR in 1960-1990 with the involvement of scientific and journalistic literature. The relevance of the topic is due to its high significance for understanding the problems of implementing the modern pension system in Russia, generalizing the existing accumulated experience in order to use the best practices at the present time. The study describes 2 main stages of the formation and development of the pension system of the USSR with a brief description of reforms and development problems. The authors analyze the relationship between the influence of demographic policy, income policy, economic development and the evolution of the pension system in the USSR. The article considers in detail the factors of the growth of the crisis state of the USSR economy in the period from 1970 to 1990, describes the causes of the collapse of the USSR Pension system, among which a significant increase in the proportion of pensioners in the population is determined, the excess of state budget expenditures over income, an increase in the state financial pension burden, the absence of a direct relationship between income and the size of the accrued pension. The authors summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the pension system in the USSR.

Keywords: pension system, old-age pension, pension reform, work experience, retirement age, average pension, state budget, average salary, GDP growth


THE IMPACT OF TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN NON-RESIDENTS AND THE BANK OF RUSSIA ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE RUSSIAN BOND MARKET AND THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET

Author(s): Sergey E. Stepanov

Annotation: In his article, the author examines the impact of US sanctions imposed on the Russian Federation on the government debt market and the foreign exchange swap market. The author describes how the regulation of the Bank of Russia affects the dynamics of the Russian bond market and the foreign exchange market. The author highlights the main indicators of the government bond market, and considers the main aspects of the strategy as regards carry-trade currency swaps, as well as the impact of transactions within this strategy on the exchange rate of the Russian ruble. The author indicates, in which situations the inflow of foreign investment increases, and how it affects the financial market of the country. The author notes how the behavior of foreign investors affects the domestic stock market, and reveals the reasons for the stability of the ruble exchange rate in the conditions of sanctions risks and increased global inflation. The author analyzes the largest liquidity providers in the currency swap market, and points out to the reasons for the importance of this market for the financial market and the stability of the economy as a whole. The author draws conclusions about the stability of the Russian financial market, the investment attractiveness of Russia in the context of sanctions, including from the point of view of public debt and foreign exchange transactions

Keywords: currency swap transactions, government debt transactions, bonds, Bank of Russia, foreign exchange market, carry-trade strategy


SOCIO-ECONOMIC FEATURES OF THE PENSION PLAN IN THE DEFENSE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Author(s): Sergey V. Kiryukhin

Annotation: The purpose of the study is to consider the socio-economic features of the pension scheme in the Russian defense and law enforcement agencies and to identify problems that reduce the social significance of this payment. In his study, the author indicates that in its socio-economic essence, a military pension is a compensation for hardships and risks associated with specific conditions and the nature of professional activity of military personnel, which can harm their life or health, and for this reason lead to the inability of further military service. The military pension is included in the system of compensatory measures guaranteed by the state due to the special nature of military service, and is one of the public ways of regulating such compensation aimed at ensuring the property interests of persons discharged from military service (pensioned off). It seems necessary to take into account the monthly additional payments that were paid to a serviceman during his military service as compensation for increased risks of loss of his life or health, when calculating a military pension for long service. In fact, they currently take into account compensation for risks associated with the loss of health of military personnel only when granting a military disability pension.

Keywords: pension scheme, socio-economic essence of the pension plan, military pension, compensation for health damage, social risks, indexation


REPRESENTATION OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR OF POLICE OFFICERS IN MOVIES: A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

Author(s): Dmitry V. Bosov, Vladislav Yu. Dubrovsky, Pavel A. Kadutsky

Annotation: The article concerns an analysis of the results of a sociological study conducted in the Belgorod region in 2021 on the basis of a questionnaire survey of police officers and a semi-structured interview of experts. The results of the study showed that the majority of police officers and experts were aware of the increase in a number of suicides of police officers. The authors revealed that there were practically no scientific studies devoted to understanding the representation of the suicidal behavior of police officers in movies. The authors drew the following conclusions: In the domestic cinema, this problem is either tabooed or forced into the background; almost all movies are made in Hollywood and Western Europe, and American cinema is clearly in the lead. Despite of the fact that the suicidal problem of police officers is traditionally considered in the crime-action-thriller genres, respondents from among police officers focus on the cause-and-effect relation, which is based on the desire to solve a logical riddle, whereas experts focus on the deep moral contradictions of the heroes. Based on empirical data, the authors concluded that the problem of police suicide was insufficiently reflected in modern Russian movies and required an elaboration. Focusing on this issue, mass media bring it out of the shadow and taboos, which is specific for hierarchical and closed isolated organizations, including law enforcement agencies.

Keywords: police officers, suicide, suicidal behavior, sociology of cinema, cinematography, image of a policeman, mass media


STRATEGIES OF SOCIAL ADVERTISING MESSAGES AIMED AT POPULARIZING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF THE POPULATION

Author(s): Sergey V. Tsvetov

Annotation: The article is devoted to substantiating that physical inactivity is one of the main factors of the growing global burden of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, depression and diabetes. The author notes that recent studies indicate that in general, global trends in reducing physical activity of citizens are stable. In this regard, it is highly feasible and necessary to look for the most effective mechanisms for popularizing a healthy lifestyle and involving citizens in physical culture and sports activities. One of such mechanisms is social advertising, the communication strategies of which are based on a careful and reasoned choice of the style and content of the communication message sent to the addressee. The author examines the main strategies for choosing a communication message within the framework of advertising campaigns to promote a healthy lifestyle and physical activity. The author concludes that social advertising, being one of the effective mechanisms of mass communication, promotes the popularization of a healthy lifestyle and increases physical activity. In addition, it has the targeting and mass character necessary to spread the value of health and attract citizens to active health and longevity programs.

Keywords: physical activity, prevention, health, social advertising, social process


DIGITALIZATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE HISTORICAL PROCESS

Author(s): Airat H. Lukmanov

Annotation: Digitalization is a global social, economic and technological phenomenon and a process that covers wide areas of social reality. Since the 1950s, with a clear leap in the 1990s due to the advent of the Internet, digitization has changed many social processes and phenomena, such as work, shopping and financial payments, education, travel, personal health management, leisure, etc. In his article, the author discusses the main historical milestones in the development of digital technologies, within which the digitization of data contributed not only to the emergence of individual inventions, but also to the technological transformation of individual processes and phenomena, as well as scientific and technological progress in general. The author concludes that the impact of digital transformation and the development of digital technologies on the evolution of global society has yet to be assessed and realized. But it is already clear that digitalization as a technological and social phenomenon has become an integral part of our life.

Keywords: historical process, evolution, digital technologies, digitalization, digitization, social reality


UTOPIAN SOCIALISM OF THE XXI CENTURY: THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD MAN

Author(s): Olga S. Kodis

Annotation: In her article, the author examines the stages of the formation of utopian socialism as one of the directions of socio-philosophic thought reflecting the main ways of searching for the most optimal models of society organization. The author lays down the views of utopian socialists on the problems of property distribution, labor organization, education of the younger generation, etc. The author investigates into the reasons for the transition from conceptual models of an ideal society during the childhood of utopian socialism to its most radical projects during the restless youth. The author outlines the evolution of social utopias up to their extinction in the middle of the XX century and further revival at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. The author analyzes new socio-class transformations and their impact on the atmosphere of general social stability. The author sets out modern views as to how to combat poverty and inequality, which caused a decrease in the degree of social tension (by way of example of the introduction of unconditional basic income in some countries). The author concludes that social utopias are invariable companions of thinking humanity, but nowadays, they are losing their traditional features (idealism, extreme subjectivism, etc.) and are becoming more and more realistic.

Keywords: social utopias, social inequality, technological progress, social experiment, global unemployment, precariat, social tension, unconditional basic income


REGULATION FEATURES OF SOCIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS IN THE SYSTEM OF SOCIAL PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION

Author(s): Oksana V. Nikonova

Annotation: The article describes some features of regulation of social and labor relations in the system of social protection of the population. This issue is currently extremely relevant, since it includes the entire spectrum of relations between social workers (their representatives) and employers (represented by the heads of social protection institutions). Russian practice shows that the regulation of social and labor relations in the system of social protection of the population, in other sectors likewise, develops mainly in two directions: state (legislative) regulation and collective contractual regulation based on the principles of social partnership. The subjects of social partnership can and should have both common and distinct objectives of activity, which is natural and also necessary for each of the parties of partnership interaction. The author outlines the main approaches to the regulation of social and labor relations. In particular, the author writes that social protection of the population as a whole, including social workers, is the subject of social dialogue at all levels: international (ILO Convention No. 102, On Minimum Standards of Social Security), national (implementation of ratified conventions, General Agreement, social policy and programs), regional and municipal (Agreements, programs), and local/industrial level (collective agreements). However, social workers in the Russian Federation become a party to negotiations in the social dialogue as regards the protection of their labor rights only at the regional level. The author outlines the regional experience of regulating social and labor relations (by way of example of the city of Moscow).

Keywords: social protection, social and labor relations, social partnership, general agreement, collective agreement


CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC AS PREVENTION OF ANXIETY AND STIGMATIZATION

Author(s): Lipai Tatyana Petrovna, Yichang An

Annotation: The modern business environment is becoming increasingly complex and volatile, which requires companies to deal with the threat of a wide variety of crises, such as natural disasters, man-made disasters, and financial problems. In these crises, the contemporary economic crisis has shown a trend of larger spread with more serious impact due to the development of globalization, which leaves no one immune. Therefore, crisis management is becoming more important, especially during the special economic crisis caused by Covid-19. In this epidemic, most small and medium-sized enterprises were first to be hit since they are still in development and do not always have the ability to resist risks. All this causes great concern in people, leads to an increased level of anxiety, stress and stigmatization. Authors explain the characteristics of SMEs and summarize strategies for SMEs company management to survive and develop in the economic crisis. Based on theory and practice, authors analyze the different development states of SMEs before the economic crisis and at the time of the economic crisis and combines these two states to compare the views of different scholars in different periods. The findings of the current study on crisis management of SMEs provide scientific interest and practical business management strategies to redefine SME governance during and after the epidemic

Keywords: social processes, Small Medium Enterprises (SME), economic crisis, stigmatization, fear, anxiety, sociology of management, crisis management, Covid-19


LEGAL LIABILITY FOR NON-COMPLIANCE WITH PROHIBITIONS AND RESTRICTIONS WHEN PERFORMING CUSTOMS OPERATIONS

Author(s): Konfino Kseniya Vyacheslavovna

Annotation: One of the most important regulators in the field of customs is the administrative and legal mechanism, which includes methods, means and tools for implementing state policy to comply with prohibitions and restrictions in foreign trade. A huge number of cases of administrative offenses initiated by customs authorities on non-compliance with prohibitions and restrictions indicate the relevance of the topic of the article. This growth is mainly associated with the expansion of interdepartmental interaction between customs authorities and other state regulatory authorities and has a positive effect on the process of identifying violations in this area. The paper studies the peculiarities of detecting and suppressing offenses in the field of application of prohibitions and restrictions under Articles 16.3 and 16.2, Part 3. At the same time, the submission of invalid documents entails liability under Article 16.2 Part 3 of the Administrative Code, and not the provision of these docu-ments under Article 16.3 of the Administrative Code. At the same time, most of the offenses in the field of non-compliance with prohibitions and restrictions fall on Article 16.3 of the Administrative Code, according to which permits are not submitted. This is due to factors such as changing the product nomenclature code as part of control measures, which entails the need to provide permits, as well as the lack of knowledge of foreign trade participants about the responsibility for failure to provide these documents. In order to prevent these offenses, it is necessary to hold round tables with participants in foreign economic activity to increase informatization in the field of granting permits, in particular in the field of technical regulation. Within the framework of Article 16.2 Part 3 of the Administrative Code, participants in foreign economic activity are held accountable mainly due to the indication in the declarations / certificates of conformity of incorrect numbers of test reports that are not registered. This problem is large-scale in the field of technical regulation today, and requires a solution in the form of creating a full-fledged chain of obtaining permits on the basis of a single window mechanism, transparent to all interested parties. Also, this problem requires an integrated approach and a revision of the rules for the accreditation of testing laboratories.

Keywords: prohibitions and restrictions, administrative offenses, technical regulation


Issue #6 of year 2021

SOCIOLOGICAL, MEDICAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF INCREASING THE STRENUOUS ACTIVITY OF ELDERLY PEOPLE

Author(s): S. V. Tsvetov

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of sociological, medical and social aspects of physical activity of elderly citizens. This is a pressing problem as modern global demographic trends indicate an aging population worldwide. The author outlines the key features of the social policy aimed at the development of health care for senior citizens and conditioned by certain cultural shifts that have determined several interrelated social phenomena: the decline in the value of parenthood and the reduction of childbearing against a background of increasing life expectancy. This has led to an increase in the share of older people in the structure of the world population. The author proves that national socio-economic systems face the need to provide conditions for healthy and active aging, one of the factors of which is physical activity. The article aims to demonstrate the sociological, medical and social aspects of maintaining and increasing the strenuous activity of elderly and senile citizens. On the basis of Russian and foreign sociological publications, as well as regulatory documents of the World Health Organization, the author analyzes some promising approaches to ensuring active longevity basing on physical activity of citizens. The author finally proposes extending the medical and social practices in question in the Russian health care and employment systems in relation to older residents.

Keywords: social process, physical activity, health, elderly citizens.


The Development of a System of Supervision over the Infrastructure of the Securities Market in the Context of the Creation of a Mega-Regulator

Author(s): S .E. Stepanov

Annotation: In his article, the author discusses the development of the regulatory infrastructure of the Russian securities market in the context of the creation of a large-scale regulator. The author highlights the main components of the infrastructure, and explains the purpose of each component. At the same time, the author notes that the Bank of Russia (the Central Bank of the Russian Federation) is dynamically developing and evolving using the necessary competent and risk-oriented approach to supervisory activities. The author draws attention to the fact that the Central Bank has become a legal successor to the Federal Service for Financial Markets. In this regard, the author considers the process of merging these two watchdog bodies and the integration of internal supervisory procedures. The author focuses on the supervision by the Bank of Russia of professional operators of the securities market, on the methods and tools aimed at achieving high quality and effectiveness of supervision. The author underlines the principle of proportional supervision, according to which the methods and measures of supervision taken by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation depend on the level of risk in the securities market and the overall sustainable development of the Russian economy. The author identifies the criteria for determining the need to integrate supervision and increase the level of external supervision. The author determines the goals and objectives of the regulation of the securities market infrastructure by the Bank of Russia in the context of the creation of a large regulatory body.

Keywords: development of the supervision system, the Bank of Russia, securities market infrastructure, methods of supervision, creation of a mega- regulator, integration.


IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION AS A KEY CONDITION FOR INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF ENGINEERING LABOR

Author(s): Ekpobodo Raymond Ovwigho

Annotation: The article examines the factors of increasing the efficiency of engineering work on the basis of a comparative analysis of the experience of Russia and the similar experience of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Such work became possible in connection with the existing corresponding Agreement on cooperation of these states. First of all, the substantiation of the concept of "quality of education" is given, since there is a wide discussion in the literature on this issue. At the same time, the existing definitions do not link the quality of education with indicators of the efficiency of engineering labor, as well as with the efficiency of production in general. The article proves that the quality of engineering education of graduates of engineering universities is a key fundamental factor in the effectiveness of engineering work. At the same time, the article recommends methods for ensuring the quality of engineering education within the framework of a systematic approach to improving the system of engineering education.

Keywords: efficiency of engineering work; quality of engineering education; systemic and integrated approach; government support for engineering education; public-private partnership as a condition for improving the quality of engineering education; motivation and stimulation of engineering work; factors of the efficiency of engineering work; methods for determining indicators of the effectiveness of engineering work.


THE USE OF BIG DATA IN FORECASTING THE DEMAND OF THE LABOR MARKET FOR THE EDUCATION SYSTEM

Author(s): Yu. V. Ermachkova, M. A. Livenets, I. V. Seliverstova

Annotation: In Russia, unlike in a number of developed countries, the use of big data to assess and predict the demand of the labor market for the education system has not gained ground as yet. In their article, the authors present the results of their study on the use of big data in forecasting the demand of the labor market for the education system. The study was conducted on the basis of an analysis of open sources from 35 countries, including Australia, Europe, certain countries in Africa, the Caribbean, North and South America and Asia. The study and systematization of international experience made it possible to identify the most promising areas of using big data to analyze the demand of the labor market for personnel and assess the possibility of their application in our country. As part of the analysis, the authors assessed the scale of the use of big data and artificial intelligence in forecasting the labor market and its demand for the vocational education system. The authors identified the main areas of using big data in labor specifics of the information support systems of the labor market and the education sector in our country. market forecasts, and recorded the key subjects of big data analysis and the possibility of transferring promising developments for Russia, considering the

Keywords: big data, labor market forecast, personnel training.


PROBLEMS OF CREATING A COMMON LABOR MARKET OF THE MEMBER STATES OF POST-SOVIET REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Author(s): Olga Dmitrievna Maksimova

Annotation: The article presents an analysis (review) of a monographic study: Orlova E.E. Harmonization of legal regulation of employment of the CIS member states in the context of a European perspective: monograph / E.E. Orlova. - Tambov. Publishing center of FGBOU VO "TSTU", 2021 - 252 p.

Keywords: employment, harmonization of legal regulation, common labor market, legal forms of employment promotion.


THE SPECIFICS OF THE FORMATION OF THE COMPANY'S REPUTATION IN THE GAMING INDUSTRY AND THE PROBLEMS OF INTERACTION WITH GAMING COMMUNITIES

Author(s): Zhanna V. Milovats, Anton A. Apenkin

Annotation: The relevance of this study is determined by the fact that with the development of the Internet space and the expansion of the computer games industry, the pressure on companies and, as a consequence, the complexity of their activities are constantly increasing. Companies, in particular, their PR specialists, face a difficult task to create a positive reputation around the company and form a loyal audience. However, due to the versatility of the consumers of the computer games industry, it is impossible to form a single set of rules or a universal strategy. For this reason, companies periodically have to face new nuances, adapt to new conditions and take into account the fact that, it would seem, the same situations can lead to a completely opposite outcome. The article, the subject of which is the specifics of the formation of the company's reputation and the functioning of gaming communities, reveals the structure of the gaming industry, its main links and elements, problems in the formation of the company's reputation and difficulties in interacting with gaming communities. The article also examines the direct influence of sociological factors on PR and their correlation in modern realities. The information base of the study was theoretical and practical data directly revealing the essence and results of the use of PR tools in the Internet space, which are resorted to by companies in the gaming industry. Based on the analysis, conclusions were drawn and recommendations were proposed.

Keywords: sociology, public relations, society, gaming industry, sociological research, reputation management


ENSURING SOCIAL WELL-BEING BASED ON THE HUMAN CAPITAL ACQUISITION

Author(s): Alexey M. Kublanov, Anna A. Kulakova

Annotation: In their article, the authors consider the relationship between human capital and the social well-being of an individual at the present stage of development of society. In the context of digitalization of economic sectors and solving the problems of increasing national competitiveness, the study of aspects of the human capital acquisition in Russia is deemed an urgent topic in the scientific community. The issues of developing a methodological basis for forecasting a further development of human capital and the formation of Russias intellectual potential, assessing the impact of these factors on the development of society, the economic growth of the national economy and the social well-being of Russian citizens in light of digital transformation and strengthening national competitiveness are of great interest among the intellects of the time. Solving urgent problems related to the methods of measuring human capital, assessing intellectual potential, forecasting the economic development under the influence of these factors could increase Russias competitiveness in international markets and continue social development, taking into account the trends of national and global promotion. In their work, the authors examine the main modern approaches and interpretation of the essence and economic content of the concept human capital, present a scheme of the human capital acquisition, its components and benefits it provides, analyze the features of the intellectual potential acquisition, and explore the trends in the development of human capital and its significance in the light of the formation of the digital economy. The aim of the work was to determine the relationship between human capital and human social well-being in modern conditions. Based on the results of the work, the authors concluded that intellectual potential and human capital should be considered as an integral part of human life and, from the standpoint of the transformation of social values, a basic condition for ensuring social well-being.

Keywords: human capital, social well-being, intellectual potential, economic growth, digital transformation, quality of life.


INDEPENDENT EXAMINATION OF WORKING CONDITIONS AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL OF THE REGULATION OF SOCIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS

Author(s): Roman V. Kalyakulin

Annotation: In his article, the author examines the stages of the formation of the domestic forensic examination, and the emergence of the term the expert. The author analyzes legislative and regulatory legal acts that allow apply in practice the mechanism of independent expertise. The author demonstrates the consequences of job cuts at the enterprises of the domestic military-industrial complex in the 1990s, and the emerging problems of workers employed in hazardous industries in terms of confirming preferential pension provision according to Lists ## 1 and 2 In the course of the study, the author provides some examples of solutions by trade union organizations of enterprises of the aviation and mechanical engineering industry of topical issues as regards confirmation of a special length of service for the assignment of an early labor pension. Also, the author analyses the current judicial practice on these issues. The author studies the provisions of the labor legislation for the incorporation into the legal framework of the rights of trade unions to an independent examination of working conditions (IEWC). The author gives some examples of the examination of working conditions by trade union inspectors, and reveals that any methods of conducting IEWC in the legal regulation are lacking. The author generalizes the provisions regulating the conduct of IEWC in the context of branch trade unions and their associations, and indicates some directions allowing exercise the rights of trade unions granted to them by Article 370 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation in the system of regulation of social and labor relations. The author formulates a definition of an independent examination of working conditions, its role and impact on the social and economic protection of workers rights, and defined the legal mechanisms for conducting IEWC. The author finally invites trade unions to apply the IEWC procedure as an effective mechanism of the system of regulation of social and labor relations.

Keywords: expert, industry, trade unions, aviation industry, mechanical engineering, independent examination of working conditions, courts, labor inspector, harmful working conditions, workplaces, labor pensions, audit, labor protection.


RESPONSIBILITY OF CUSTOMS OFFICIALS VIOLATIONS OF THE PROCEDURE ESTABLISHED BY LAW FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF CITIZENS' CLAIMS

Author(s): Zlatomrezheva Anastasia Arsenovna

Annotation: The processing of citizen claims is one of the most important sectors of the custom authority administrative operations. Stably large amount of annually incoming in custom authorities claims and legislation which is, at the same time, far from ideal together with a practice of its applying in this field demand a more detail research of this administrative activity. The most important criterion for assessing the observance of human and civil rights and freedoms is the work with citizens' appeals, the completeness and timeliness of their resolution, as well as the adoption of sufficient measures on the facts of violations. One of the elements of such a system of control over the quality of consideration of applications is the legislative consolidation of the responsibility of the Russian Federation for violation of the procedure for considering applications from citizens established by the legislation of the Russian Federation. At the same time, one legislative consolidation of such responsibility is not enough. It is necessary that other legislative acts do not conflict with the possibility of bringing to such responsibility, given that there is currently no objective and legislatively enshrined criterion for the quality of consideration of citizens' appeals. The fundamental issue when considering citizens' appeals is, first of all, the correct choice of the appropriate order of consideration, namely general or special (consulting, informing, specific requests, etc.). It depends on the choice of this order who can be the subject of administrative responsibility in the event of violations by customs officials. When sending a response to an appeal of citizens in a general manner, such a response is signed by the head of the customs authority or his deputy, who are employees of the customs authorities. Documents that can be signed by a federal civilian civil servant, as a rule, are responses to appeals considered in a special order. The specified categories of officials are subject to the requirements of Articles 2.4 and 2.5 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation, which determines the problematic aspects of the possibility of bringing to administrative responsibility.

Keywords: customs control, administrative procedures, administrative responsibility, customs authorities, administrative offense, citizen claims.


METHODOLOGY OF ENSURING COMPETITIVENESS OF THE MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

Author(s): Svyatoslav I. Zakharov

Annotation: The article is topical because it is necessary to develop scientific and methodological support for improving the efficiency of using the administrative potential of managers at industrial enterprises in modern market conditions. The purpose of the article is to describe the methodology for ensuring the competitiveness of managers, the use of which methodology will make it possible to use managerial potential more effectively. The author defines the concepts of managerial potential, competitiveness of an executive, congruence of the internal competitive environment of the enterprise, highlights and reveals the main characteristics of the results of executives work. The author describes the socio-competence-economic approach to the assessment of competitiveness, which allows determining the competitive positions of managers at an industrial enterprise and choosing methods for their improvement. The author provides an example of assessing the competitiveness of top managers of Russian mining companies. The author presents a set of methods for ensuring the required competitive position of an executive, based on the development of his/her managerial potential and the competitive environment of the enterprise, and a procedure for selecting such methods for a particular executive. The author finally concludes that it is possible and feasible to use the developed set of methods to ensure the competitiveness of managers at industrial enterprises in modern conditions.

Keywords: industrial enterprise, competitiveness of an executive, socio- competence-economic approach, managerial potential of an employee, congruence of the internal competitive environment.


SPECIAL ASPECTS OF THE INSURANCE BALANCE OF THE PENSION SYSTEM IN THE CONDITIONS OF CHANGES IN THE WORKING AGE OF THE POPULATION

Author(s): Igor N. Zakharov

Annotation: In his article, the author considers a transformation of the demographic structure of the population in Russia and certain European countries in the XXth century. The author analyzes life expectancy at birth, survival period, and gender segregation. The author notes that some prerequisites for increasing the basic parameter of regulation of the pension system - the retirement age for women only - have been created. The author studies the number of pensioners and changes in the insurance balance of the pension system in the future till 2035 In the context of changing the standard retirement age according to two scenarios (according to the new and old retirement age), the author forecasts the number of recipients of the old-age insurance pension, working pensioners, non-working persons of working age receiving pensions on preferential terms and disability, predicts the insurance balance, and calculates the load and support coefficient. Also, the author calculates the real coefficient of support for old-age pensioners in 2035, based on the number of insured persons for whom insurance premiums are paid. As a result, the support coefficient calculated on the basis of the number of payers is 1.47 times less than the coefficient calculated on the basis of statistics on the working-age population.

Keywords: pension insurance, working pensioners, insured persons, insurance length of service, support coefficient.


Foreign Practice of the Organization of Remuneration of Civil Servants

Author(s): A. L. Zhukov, I. V. Filimonova

Annotation: In their article, the authors demonstrate the importance of improving the organization of remuneration of civil servants in Russia, and substantiate the relevance of making use of the experience of developed countries. The authors consider a wide variety of models of wage regulation in the public sector used by OECD countries at various stages of their development, and investigate the practice of wage regulation by developed countries in the public sector. The authors reveal the reasons for its reform and transition from a career personnel management system to a positional one. The authors disclose the content of changes in the organization of remuneration of civil servants. The authors consider the principles of the organization of remuneration based on results and labor efficiency indicators applied in Western countries, which influence the amount of remuneration of civil servants. The authors give arguments expressed by various experts about the existing system of remuneration for the results of official activity. By way of concrete examples, the authors show the mechanism of functioning of the wide-range wage model, which has become widespread in the public sector of Western countries in recent years. The authors outline some features of regulation of remuneration of heads of public organizations, and disclose the mechanism of replacing the bonus programs of senior managers of the public sector with the imposed restrictions on the maximum salary level.

Keywords: civil servants, remuneration, grading, payment by results, productivity.


SOCIAL AND ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS OF THE REGION

Author(s): Hamit B. Dusaev

Annotation: The article concerns the analysis of the population, employment, dynamics of cash income and socio-engineering facilities of the village as the most important component of the effective development of rural territories and rural economy of the Orenburg region. The author substantiates transformational changes in regional population and employment, and outlines the causes of destructive changes, a decay of the rural population, a destruction of social infrastructure, increased polarization of the city and village, and deterioration of the conditions and standard of living of the villagers. The author reveals the trends of the general decline and the main reasons for the more intensive reduction of the rural population, the outflow of qualified personnel, young people and villagers to urbanized centers. The author analyzes the results of the introduction of socially significant communications, social infrastructure facilities and the arrangement of rural areas of the region. The author formulates some recommendations for the improvement of social engineering arrangement of rural areas. The author proposes some specific measures and major areas of improvement and agile development of agricultural production, agricultural economic entities, rural territories and employment of rural population of the regions. The author finally concludes that the social engineering arrangement of rural areas is impossible without the implementation of federal and regional programs, increased investment, the development of industrial diversification and cooperation, the creation of new jobs and businesses, and year-round full employment of the rural population.

Keywords: population, rural areas, cash income, employment, unemployment, social development, diversification


YOUTH GUARANTEE: THE EUROPEAN UNIONSPROGRAM FOR THE REGULATION OF YOUTH EMPLOYMENT

Author(s): Alexander Yuryevich Vedekhin

Annotation: In his paper, the author presents an analysis of data reflecting the European Unionsexperiencein ensuring employment for young people aged 15 to 34 years on the basis of the Youth Guarantee Program. The program was developed and implemented in all EU countries in 2014, and is currently an effective systemic mechanism for preventing youth unemployment. The author highlights the main aspects of this program, the dynamics of its development and key changes, and defines its efficiency indices. The author underlines that as a result of the implementation of the Youth Guarantee Program, youth unemployment for the period from 2013 through 2019 decreased from 24% to 14.6%; the share of people aged 15to 24 years who were not engaged in work, in education or vocational training dropped from 13.2% in 2012 to 10.2% in 2018.The author concludes that the Youth Guarantee Program is currently one of the most effective examples of an active youth employment policy that takes into account the capabilities of the state, civil society institutions and the youth themselves in achieving the goals of effective employment.

Keywords: employment policy, youth, unemployment, youth employment, European Union, Youth Guarantee Program


SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN A MARKET ECONOMY

Author(s): Osipov Egor Mikhailovich

Annotation: In this article, social partnership is viewed in a broad context as a social institution that ensures the development of the entire system of social and labor relations on the basis of cooperation, the search for mutually acceptable solutions. Attention is drawn to the formation of a new paradigm in the understanding of social partnership as a new type of social relations that is maturing in the depths of oligarchic capitalism. It is concluded that social partnership is one of the necessary conditions for the effective operation of small businesses.

Keywords: partnership, cooperation, small business, new paradigm, labor sphere, joint activity, social subjects, intersecting interests, contradictions, balance, consensus


INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT IN THE LABOR MARKET

Author(s): Kryvtsov Artem Igorevich

Annotation: In the works of Russian scientists researchers in the field of macroeconomics and labor economics informal employment became the subject of research in the period of the 1990s. The transition of the economy to a market type of management led to the development of shadow social and labor relations, which for many able-bodied citizens have become the only possible form of employment and income generation. Thus, informal employment is now a fixed and statistically measured socio-economic phenomenon. Trends in the Russian labor market and indicators of informal employment largely depend not only on objective macroeconomic conditions related to the change in the phases of the economic cycle, but also on global challenges, sanitary and epidemiological conditions that stimulate a change in state decisions in the field of employment policy, as well as on measures taken by the government to support unemployed citizens.

Keywords: labor economy, labor market, labor resources, able-bodied population, informal employment, measurement


INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE OPERATING ENVIRONMENT AS A PREDICTOR OF WELLJBEING AT WORK AND LABOR RODUCTIVITY

Author(s): P. V. Simonin

Annotation: In his article, the author deals with the concept of well-being measures related to a set of functions in which training creates certain advantages for potential employees in the process of adapting to the operating environment. The author considers the actions of principals and agents in the noxosphere. The author notes that given changing market conditions, they should jointly form a harmonized exclusive operating environment that ensures the integrity of the working system in conditions of mutual goal-setting, clarifying role expectations and creating feedback. The author identifies the determinants of inequality associated with access to information and communication technologies and reinforcing the existing gap. This can lead to the emergence of a digital divide. The author draws attention to the fact that six times more people die daily due to accidents or diseases associated with an unfavorable working environment, rather than from COVID-19. The author notes that the parameters of the production operating environment and the production process are strongly correlated with sanitary and hygienic working conditions, work and rest conditions, and labor safety. The author recommends building such a management system and institutional and regulatory controlling, which ensures the formation of healthy social and labor relations in the process of interaction between principals and agents.

Keywords: well-being, operating environment, health, work regime, labor safety, workplaces


Issue #5 of year 2021

THE FUTURE OF THE LABOR MARKET: WHAT IS IMPENDING FOR MODERN CHILDREN?

Author(s): Terganov Y.K., Kosikhin A.S., Kartashov S.A.

Annotation: The article is devoted to what the labor market expects in the future and how to prepare for it. The authors analyze the prospects of existing professions. In this regard, the authors attempt to answer a number of questions that arise during the study. What choice of professions modern schoolchildren, parents and teachers should be intended for? Will technical specialists only be in demand in the labor market, or will there also be a place for manual labor and creative professions? What opportunities are opening up in connection with the widespread introduction of Artificial Intelligence, automation and robotics? Will Artificial Intelligence be able to completely displace people from the labor market? The article also discusses the possibility of introducing a basic income and reducing the working week. The authors offer a list of predicted professions, and dwell upon some basic skills needed today and urgently needed in the future (soft skills). The authors touch upon the problem of increasing life expectancy and the resulting changes. The authors pay attention to the globalization of many processes and the prospects that open up in this regard. The authors finally examine the principles of generation Z, their life priorities and values, and options for educational processes within the framework of lifelong learning.

Keywords: the future of the labor market, soft skills, lifelong learning, automation, robotics, Artificial Intelligence.


MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS AND MANDATORY PSYCHIATRIC EXAMINATIONS IN THE SYSTEM OF GUARANTEES OF THE RIGHT TO HEALTH PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES: MEANING, SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

Author(s): Yulia S. Taranova

Annotation: The article is devoted to a comparative study of medical examinations and mandatory psychiatric examinations as guaranteed by the right to health protection of employees. The author considers the importance of such medical examinations in labor law, which is emphasized by both domestic and foreign researchers. The author indicates that employees are obliged to undergo such examinations, and employers are likewise obligated to send their employees to medical institutions for these procedures. The author reveals some similarities and some differences of such medical examinations, which make it possible to distinguish mandatory psychiatric examinations from the range of medical examinations. The author draws attention to the fact that employers often do not ensure that employees undergo medical examinations. In the end, the author concludes that the labor legislation is imperfect in terms of mandatory psychiatric examinations. The author proposes to amend the labor legislation by introducing a separate type of examination, namely a mandatory preliminary psychiatric examination. In addition, the author proposes that the mandatory psychiatric examination should be distinguished from the range of medical examinations in the labor legislation.

Keywords: mandatory psychiatric examination, medical checkup, medical examinations, guarantees of the right to health protection.


THE STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE AS A SUBJECT OF REGULATION OF SOCIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS Part 3 Foreign Practices of Functioning of Public Employment Services

Author(s): Sergey A. Kartashov, Vladimir D. Rozhkov, Polina I. Ananchenkova

Annotation: State employment services in industrialized countries traditionally provide a wide range of services for the implementation of an aggressive employment policy, namely intermediary services for the employment of job seekers, recruiting specialists of appropriate qualifications, managing the process of assigning and payment of unemployment benefits, administration of databases of applicants and vacant positions, etc. The purpose of this work is to consider the main activities of public employment services in foreign countries and to identify the most effective and promising areas of their work within the framework of the implementation of an aggressive employment policy. Based on the results of the analysis, the authors made the following conclusions: the targets, principles and activities of the public employment service should be developed and reformed considering the specifics of the country; integration of services is a modern trend and an effective method of improving the efficiency of the public employment service; as the opportunities for providing services expand, public employment services have become more selective in relation to the services they themselves provide; the effectiveness of the public employment service has increased in many countries after the adoption of market approaches; when the activities of the public employment service are systematically monitored and evaluated, the lessons learned are very useful for adjusting the details of the development and implementation of programs.

Keywords: labor market, employment, aggressive employment policy, state employment service, foreign experience, efficiency.


PR TOOLS FOR BUILDING THE REPUTATION OF A GAMING COMPANY IN THE INTERNET SPACE

Author(s): Zhanna V. Milovats, Anton A. Apenkin

Annotation: In their article, the authors discuss the main PR tools and ways of their application, analyze their role in solving the problem of forming a companys reputation in the gaming industry, and attempt to highlight the problems associated with the operation of gaming companies in the Internet space. The work is quite relevant as, with the development of the Internet space, PR specialists have to rethink their approach to the tools they use. This applies, most of all, to companies involved in the gaming industry, which, as compared to all others, are maximally connected with the Internet space and are subject to changes when operating in the field of public relations. The authors examine the influence of sociology on public relations and their correlation in modern realities. The authors use as an information base of the study the theoretical and practical data that directly reveal the essence and results of the application of the PR tools in the Internet space gaming companies resort to. Based on their analysis, the authors drew some conclusions and proposed some recommendations to companies as regards changing the system to improve relationships within their target audience, as well as reduce risks and prevent the occurrence of local conflict situations and the companys crisis in the market.

Keywords: sociology, public relations, society, gaming industry, sociological research, company reputation.


JOB PLACEMENT AND EMPLOYMENT CREATION FOR GRADUATES FROM UNIVERSITIES AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS IN THE CONDITIONS OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE LABOR MARKET

Author(s): Karl G. Kyazimov

Annotation: The article concerns the transformation of the labor market. The author notes that in the wake of the pandemic, the problems of job placement and employment of vocational school graduates have significantly worsened. The author emphasizes that in recent years, graduates from vocational schools account for up to 28 % of the total number of registered unemployed; every third graduate from a university and college does not work in his/her profession. Moreover, at present, the data on the employment of graduates are not accurate, as vocational schools receive them on the basis of internal surveys and research. The author draws attention to the fact that the system monitoring the graduate employment does not fully determine how many vocational school graduates have been employed by professions and how much such professions are in demand by employers. The author pays particular attention to the need to update the existing monitoring of the employment of vocational school graduates and tracking their employment according to their profession. The author notes that it is necessary to develop a new mechanism to support the employment of graduates by subsidizing employers from the federal budget in the amount of up to three minimum wages. Based on the results of the analysis of the labor market, the author provides some recommendations for the successful employment of vocational school graduates.

Keywords: job placement, the labor market of vocational school graduates, employment problems, employment of vocational school graduates.


SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE AGEING OF POPULATION AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SILVER ECONOMY

Author(s): Darya L. Kobozeva, Polina I. Ananchenkova

Annotation: This paper presents an analysis of data reflecting the prospects of the global demographic trend associated with the ageing of population and an increase in the share of elderly citizens in the population structure. The authors identify the countries whose socio-economic development is experiencing the greatest demographic burden due to the above-mentioned trends. The authors present data reflecting the dynamics of population of post-retirement age in the Russian Federation. The authors analyze the features of behavioral practices of senior citizens focused on the consumption of goods and services, considering age specifics, conditions and opportunities for the formation of a segment of the silver economy, as well as some restrictions for its development in the Russian Federation. The authors note that the consumer behavior and solvent demand of Russian citizens of post-retirement age is negatively affected by low income and limited opportunities to continue working after retirement. The authors finally conclude that the development of the silver economy in our country is limited by the real incomes of senior citizens accrued by means of pensional contributions and income from work. It is possible to stimulate their consumer activity only on the basis of structural changes in socio-economic relations and the formation of a culture of active longevity.

Keywords: ageing of population, senior citizens, pension, active longevity, the silver economy, consumption.


FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Author(s): Roman V. Kalyakulin

Annotation: In his article, the author analyzes the state of the aircraft industry, the infrastructure of Russias civil aviation, and its role and impact on the economy. The author scrutinizes the international and national regulatory legal acts of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation and the Federal Air Transport Agency (Rosaviation) regulating the activities of the aircraft industry. The author reflects certain proposals on improving the level of flight safety, exercising due control over the technical condition of aircraft and forecast data on the development of the industry. The author carries out a comparative analysis of the change in the number of employees employed in the industry. The author outlines some problems in the industry, some issues of import substitution and measures of the state support for the aircraft industry. The author conducts a comparative analysis of the state program for the development of the aircraft industry with the operational data of the branch trade union. The author considers the main indicators of the development of the small aircraft segment in the world and in the Russian Federation. The author studies some research of aviation public organizations of the USA and the Russian Federation, as well as the role and importance of the development of small aircraft in the socio-economic issues of the country. As the main solution, the author proposes incorporating into the aircraft industry development program an appropriate block involving the development of the general aircraft segment, as well as introducing specific digital indicators characterizing the creation of new jobs in the industry.

Keywords: industry, state development programs, import substitution, aircraft engineering, trade union, employment, jobs.


PROBLEMS OF PERSONNEL TRAINING IN THE CONDITIONS OF DIGITALIZATION

Author(s): Tatiana E. Volskaya

Annotation: The modern digital economy has significant potential for accelerating the pace of economic development of the state and improving the quality of life of citizens. The realities of modern society require a new approach to the personnel training in the digital economy, whose contribution to Russias GDP is estimated at 2.8 %. According to the Program Digital Economy of the Russian Federation, one of the five basic lines of development of the digital economy in Russia is the segment Personnel and Education. The system of higher and secondary vocational education, as it currently exists with a certain number of exams, professors, classroom classes, etc. has of course no future in the world of the digital economy. But this state of affairs does not at all mean that educational processes as such are impossible in the new conditions of the digital economy. The digital inequality of educational organizations ultimately does not make it possible to form the necessary digital competencies of students. The breakthrough knowledge and skills cannot be formed in the current education system. Knowledge and skills of this kind are born only in breakthrough projects, where the roles of the carrier and the creator of new competencies coincide. Such education constitutes a corporate university and is the only currently known effective way of training personnel for companies that really claim to be world leaders.

Keywords: digitalization, education, labor market, specialists, personnel training, competencies.


STRATEGIES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Author(s): Elena V. Vashalomidze

Annotation: The article concerns the ways of social development and the formation of the strategy of public administration in Russia. The author studies the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of public administration aimed at improving the quality of public services and citizens confidence in the management decisions of government structures. Over the past 20 years, the world community has been experiencing a rapid increase in indicators of socio-economic development, due to the introduction of new technologies and access to capital markets. The activity of these processes, however, has contributed to an increase in disparities within states and between countries, intensifying vulnerability to the influence of global economic trends. The purpose of this work is to consider the main lines of development of the strategy of public administration at the present stage of development of society. In the course of the study, the author used the works of Russian experts, who examined modern approaches to the formation of the strategy of public administration. The analysis of the effectiveness of the implementation of these programs of strategic development of the Russian Federation allowed the author to trace the dynamics of the level of efficiency of public administration in the country. In addition, the author unveiled the reaction of the Russian state apparatus to situations when the goals of public administration set had not been attained.

Keywords: strategic decisions, public administration, public administration efficiency, quality assessment, public services.


SOCIAL SUPPORT OF THE POPULATION IN THE MIRROR OF FACTS AND OPINIONS

Author(s): A. N. Bolnitskaya

Annotation: The below article is based on the results of a sociological study devoted to the development of a regional model of social support (by way of example of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya)). The author describes the features of the formation and development of this model, and examines the main lines and stages of its development, as well as the existing regulatory and legal framework in this regard. The author identifies and analyzes the attitudes of the population to the existing social support measures, peoples subjective assessments and opinions, as well as the level of satisfaction with what has been done in this regard by state institutions. The author notes that in market conditions people undergo socio- economic adaptation, acquire new social practices, but nevertheless traditional values and attitudes are still very stable. The study summarizes the current problems of the system of social support measures. The author studies the attitude of society to the categories of citizens who are eligible for such support, as well as to the volume and conditions of its provision. The author finally summarizes the main results of the sociological study and provides some recommendations for further improvement of the existing system of social support measures for the population of the Republic.

Keywords: social support, social protection, targeted measures of social support, criteria of needs, forms of social support.


OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL EMPLOYMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS: CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPACT ON THE LIVING STANDARD OF HOUSEHOLDS

Author(s): V. N. Bobkov, E. V. Odintsova, V. V. Pavlova

Annotation: In their article, the authors analyze the comparative quality of official and unofficial employment in organizations. The authors prove that both employment sectors are characterized by a noticeable spread of unstable (precarized) employment. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the quantitative assessment of the manifestations of unstable employment in the official and unofficial sectors. This allows us to characterize the differences in the quality of this employment. The authors note that informal employment is of a lower quality. This is manifested in its greater exposure to unstable employment and the concentration of its signs leading to the most vulnerable position in the employment of workers in this employment sector. The authors reveal the potential for the legalization of hidden employment, which is manifested in the readiness of a significant part of the workers of the shadow sector to change jobs. The authors demonstrate that at present the distribution of employees according to the standards of wages and household income in both sectors of employment in organizations is approximately equal, which does not motivate most of the covertly employed in organizations to legalize it. The conclusions the authors draw from the study seem significant as they can be used to improve the effectiveness of the state employment policy and create conditions that exclude informal employment.

Keywords: official employment, informal employment, concentration of indicators of unstable (precarized) employment, legalization of hidden employment.


THE INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC OPINION ON THE SOCIO- PROFESSIONAL ADAPTATION OF POLICE OFFICERS

Author(s): Anastasia I. Bembena

Annotation: The article presents an analysis of the problem of the influence of public opinion on the socio-professional adaptation of police officers. The purpose of the article is to consider the features of both the formation of public opinion and the development of socio-professional adaptation of police officers. , , - . The article highlights the types of stigmatization that people demonstrate to police officers: cultural, institutional, personal. In addition, as a result of the analysis of expert materials, the ways of responding managers and police officers to criticism from citizens are highlighted: constructive and creative, formally bureaucratic, ignoring, destructive. Conclusion: police cooperation with the population contributes to the formation of a positive public opinion about the law enforcement system as a whole, and also increases the socio-adaptive capabilities of employees.

Keywords: public opinion, social and professional adaptation, police officers.


THE INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC OPINION ON THE SOCIO- PROFESSIONAL ADAPTATION OF POLICE OFFICERS

Author(s): Elena I. Aksenova

Annotation: The article presents a critical analysis of a scientific publication (monograph): Birzhenyuk G.M., Egorov P.A., Ilyinskaya E.A., Korotkina T.I., Ladokha A.V., Lobok D.V., Melnikova A.A., Sokolova I.V. Optimization of social and labor relations as a factor of prevention of professional burnout [ .., .., .., .., .., .., .., .. - ] (in Russ.). - St. Petersburg: SPbHUT, 2020 ISBN 978-5-7621-1112-6.

Keywords: social and labor relations, efficiency of employees, conflict, prevention.


ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF CORONOCRISIS AND GOVERNMENT SUPPORT MEASURES FOR TOURISM

Author(s): Sergey V. Ablyaev, Natalia N. Gubskaya

Annotation: The article analyzes the unprecedented drop in demand for tourism services caused by the global spread of the coronavirus pandemic. Tourism ranks third among the world's export industries, providing millions of people with jobs and the ability to support themselves and their families. In the GDP of individual countries, the share of tourism is more than 20 percent, at the same time, in a number of countries it fluctuates in a fairly wide range. The analysis in this work was carried out by the factor method and the comparison method. The factorial method was used to study the effect of the viral economic crisis on the reduction of indicators in the tourism sector and a decrease in its share in the GDP of individual countries and the world as a whole. The method of comparison compared the absolute indicators determined in factor analysis to identify the strength of the impact of a viral pandemic on various sectors of the tourism sector, the economies of individual countries, the world, to determine the dynamics of the process, the market position of individual sectors, as well as economies in general, state measures to support and restore the tourism sector. By co-supplying measures to support and restore the tourism sector, developed by world experts and the Government of the Russian Federation, it is concluded that they are different. The article provides an assessment of the effectiveness of measures to support the domestic tourism sector, developed and proposed by the Government of the Russian Federation, obtained as a result of a survey of participants in the domestic tourism market conducted by KPMG. The support is estimated to be insignificant, although very much in demand.by KPMG. The support is estimated to be insignificant, although very much in demand.

Keywords: coronavirus, tourism, share in GDP, jobs, government recovery programs, support measures.


DYNAMICS OF IMPORT VOLUMES OF PERISHABLE PRODUCTS BY SEA ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE PORT OF NOVOROSSIYSK

Author(s): Tonkonog Viktoriya Vladimirovna

Annotation: Sea transport today provides the bulk of cargo transportation of foreign trade of the Russian Federation. The article presents the classification of perishable goods and describes the features of their transportation by sea. The dynamics of Russia's imports of perishable products (some of the most important goods) is also considered and the analysis of the activities of the Novorossiysk Customs, one of the largest customs offices in the country, is carried out. There are 7 customs posts in the structure of the customs, three of which are located on the territory of the Novorossiysk seaport. The very geographical location of the port of Novorossiysk determines the specifics of the cargo transported through it. It is worth saying that today one of the most common ways of delivering perishable cargo by sea is refrigerated containers. With the growth of container traffic volumes, the role of customs authorities in this process can hardly be overestimated. Container transshipment is the most dynamically developing area of activity of the Novorossiysk Seaport. The article analyzes the commodity and country structure of imports in the region of activity of the Novorossiysk customs. A sample on the dynamics of imports of perishable products according to the Novorossiysk Customs for 2019 and 2020 is presented. The risk factors of the world trade in food products are presented and conclusions are drawn from the study.

Keywords: perishable goods, import volume, sea transport, customs authorities, cargo turnover.


PROBLEMATIC ASPECTS OF TRANSPORTATION AND CUSTOMS CLEARANCE OF PERISHABLE GOODS

Author(s): Timchenko Tatyana Nikolaevna

Annotation: Perishable goods include food products that require compliance with certain temperature and humidity conditions during storage and transportation. Violation of these regimes can lead to a decrease in the quality of transported goods, their durability during further storage, to an increase in losses and often to damage. The special role of the movement of perishable cargo by water transport in the customs territory of the EEA consists in the possibility of servicing territories adjacent to the Northern Sea Route that do not have other transport routes. Water transport is the largest carrier in international transportation. The relevance of the research topic lies in the fact that currently unification of existing legal norms in this area is required, modernization of ports, their infrastructure and acceleration of the customs clearance process for faster passage of perishable cargo. In accordance with this goal, the article examines the essence of perishable goods, the basic requirements for transportation and storage, identifies modern problematic aspects of the customs clearance procedure and suggests possible solutions.

Keywords: perishable goods, customs clearance, problematic aspects, solutions.


MINIMIZATION OF LOGISTICAL RISKS IN THE TRANSPORTATION OF PERISHABLE GOODS

Author(s): Pogarskaya A.S

Annotation: The relevance of this work is due to the fact that the transportation of perishable goods is a very important service that requires comprehensive attention associated with the mandatory fulfillment of all conditions of transportation and storage, since a slight deviation or negligence in this matter can lead to risky situations involving material damage and damage to such goods. In addition, it is worth saying that the category of perishable goods is a fairly popular type of cargo transported, in turn, the profitability of providing services for its transportation depends on the correct organization of the transportation process, which should be reduced to comprehensive control of compliance with all specific requirements for this type of cargo at all stages of the supply chain. The main probability of occurrence of risky situations is a violation of the temperature regime, which is the main condition for maintaining the quality of the transported products, and also depends not only on the type of goods, but also on the region and time of year. For this purpose, the concept of perishable products has been considered in this article, taking into account their division into three main groups according to the criteria of temperature regime, type of product, as well as the state and degree of freezing. Along with this, the article reveals the basic requirements for transportation conditions, which have been studied in the context of various modes of transport. The conducted research made it possible to identify the main reasons for the appearance of logistical risks and formulate an algorithm to minimize them.

Keywords: perishable goods, logistical risks, transportation conditions, packaging requirements, risk minimization algorithm.


FEATURES APPLICABLE TO THE CUSTOMS CLEARANCE OF PERISHABLE GOODS

Author(s): Arestova Yulia Aleksandrovna

Annotation: The issues of specifics of customs clearance of perishable goods are very relevant today due to the increasing import of this category of goods to Russia. The specifics of customs clearance of perishable goods are determined by: the conditions of transportation and storage; the degree of processing of the product; shelf life; method of unloading / loading. The procedure for customs clearance of perishable products is issued in a simplified mode, however, the preparatory stage, at which the accompanying documents and permits are issued, requires considerable time. In addition, the pre-declaration used for such goods is also a technology "not without flaws" and often does not shorten, but increases the time for customs clearance. In this regard, the article identified and formulated the features of customs clearance of perishable goods, including the established customs clearance procedure, requirements for the availability of appropriate permits and preliminary declaration procedures. The conducted research allowed us to identify a number of problems and suggest ways to solve them.

Keywords: perishable goods, the specifics of customs clearance, the procedure for customs clearance of perishable goods, the release of goods before filing a declaration for goods, preliminary declaration.


CUSTOMS INSPECTION OF PERISHED CARGO: CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS

Author(s): Golovan Tatyana Viktorovna

Annotation: Over the many years of foreign trade, it has become obvious that not only the spring-summer period for customs officials is tense at times, since a huge amount of perishable goods is imported, but also the autumn-winter period does not lag behind in terms of the import of this type of cargo. Perishable goods require fast and efficient customs clearance and customs control without prejudice to participants in foreign economic activity, in accordance with art. 67 of the Customs Code of the Eurasian Economic Union, prescribing the priority procedure for customs clearance and control. However, often when the risk management system is triggered for perishable goods, a customs inspection is established. This article defines the essence of customs inspection as one of the most significant forms of customs control, examines the features of customs inspection, examines aspects of organizing it, analyzes the performance indicators of customs posts of actual control in the region of Novorossiysk customs during 2017-2020 years for customs clearance as part of the implementation of the risk management system. The problematic aspects in the existing method of customs inspection on the example of perishable goods, which are caused by the insufficient technical equipment of refrigeration units and locks of temporary storage facilities at sea checkpoints for the safety of this type of cargo, as well as the presence of the risk of poisoning of the inspectors of the customs inspection department who inspect containers with perishable goods transported by sea vessels across the customs border of the EEU are highlighted by the author. As a result of the study, recommendations were made to eliminate the identified problematic aspects.

Keywords: perishable goods, sea vessels, containers, customs control, customs inspection, customs authorities, performance indicator, refrigeration unit, hazardous chemicals, gas analysis.


Issue #4 of year 2021

STRATEGIC PLANNING OR HOW TO EXTEND THE LIFE CYCLE OF AN ENTERPRISE

Author(s): R. R. Charyev

Annotation: In his article, the author describes the theoretical and methodological aspects of the formation of the enterprise development strategies. The author pays special attention to the methodological requirements for the development of the strategy, its purpose as the main tool in conjunction with strategic planning in order to preserve and continue the life cycle of the enterprise. The author substantiates the requirements for the development of strategies and offers seven characteristic features of strategies, which only confirm the true purpose and thoroughness of the strategy developed. To this end, the author uses the concepts and interpretations of well-known scientists in the field of strategic management. Along with this, the author emphasizes the need to have a certain level of competence on the part of the manager (strategist), without which it will be impossible to implement a strategy that meets all the criteria. The enterprise will not function for a long time as well. In addition, the author briefly outlines the content of the life cycle of the enterprise in combination with the five main personal factors of the manager. In the long run, the author systematically considers the main stages of making strategic planning decisions and offers a resource model for determining strategic actions by the manager.

Keywords: strategy, strategic planning, model, feature, sequence, life cycle.


WAYS OF DEDOLLARIZATION OF RUSSIAS INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS

Author(s): L. I. Fadeeva

Annotation: The article concerns Russias participation in the global processes of de-dollarization of international settlements. The author reveals the reasons for this phenomenon, which is gaining momentum all over the world, as well as the manifestation of such processes in Russia since 2014 The author analyzes the latest trends in the currency structure of international settlements in Russia, marked by a decrease in the share of the US dollar, and an increase in the share of the euro, ruble and other currencies. As a rule, these processes were more noticeable in the calculations for exports rather than for imports. The author notes that Russia succeeded in developing the tools for de-dollarization of international settlements. The author lists some ways of de-dollarization of international payments that are intensely used in Russia, such as liberalization of currency control, the creation and worldwide roll-out of the Financial Message Transmission System (FMTS) and the Mir national payment system, the development of correspondent relations between Russian commercial banks and foreign ones directly or through the opening of correspondent accounts in central banks of other countries using payment information transfer systems other than SWIFT or through secure banking channels. The author indicates that the Bank of Russia applies such an important tool for de-dollarization of international settlements as a currency swap in national currencies between central banks only in relations with the Peoples Bank of China. The author concludes that this tool remains underused in Russia.

Keywords: de-dollarization, currencies, international settlements, liberalization of currency control, FMTS, the Mir payment system, correspondent relations, a currency swap in national currencies.


THE FUTURE OF INTERMODAL RAIL TRANSPORT: REVIEW OF FOREIGN LITERATURE

Author(s): I. A. Sabirova

Annotation: The article deals with the implementation and development of the intermodal transport system within the transport industry. Intermodal transport (IT) includes two or more different modes of transport connected to each other for the movement of goods or passengers from the departure point to the destination. Intermodal transport is a term used to describe the movement of goods in the same loading unit or vehicle. The purpose of this article is to analyze the domestic and foreign literature as regards the development of the intermodal transport system and determining the place of railway transport in the movement chain. The author uses the method of content analysis and secondary analysis of data presented in foreign literature. The author carries out a review of publications devoted to intermodal transport systems. The author concludes that the study of scientific publications on the development of intermodal transport accumulates approaches to determining the optimal size of the fleet and suitable capacities of vehicles for various types of transport, considering the annual cargo potential and the ratio of the route completeness. The models and conditions of IP under review are intended to improve the quality of transport services and further work on the development of intermodal transport systems.

Keywords: transport industry, transport of freight, intermodal transport, railway transport, efficiency.


THE ROLE OF DOLLARIZATION IN THE ECONOMY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Author(s): A. L. Manukyan

Annotation: The article deals with the peculiarities of the process of dollarization of the economy and the directions of its influence on countries with emerging markets. In this context, the author considers in detail the structure of the National Welfare Fund of the Russian Federation. The author reveals the attitude of representatives of the executive power to the US dollar. The author notes that a course has been taken for a gradual and steady withdrawal to other reserve currencies, in particular the euro and the yuan. The author evaluates the de- dollarization of the domestic economy on the basis of a detailed study of the balance of payments of the Russian Federation. In addition, the author considers the economic nature of the phenomenon of dollarization in the modern realities of the functioning of the international monetary and financial system. The author substantiates the main negative consequences of dollarization for the Russian economy and the economies of developing countries. The author analyzes the process of dollarization/de-dollarization and proposes some ways to solve this problem, based on the current legislation, theoretical foundations and practical experience of countries. The author finds out that the rejection of the US dollar influences the value of gold on the world and domestic markets.

Keywords: dollar, dollarization of the economy, Russian economy, currency policy, monetary system.


SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SALESPEOPLE

Author(s): A. S. Kosikhin, Ya. K. Terganov, S. A. Kartashov

Annotation: In their article, the authors analyze some aspects of forming the competitiveness of a commerce sector employee. In this regard, the authors emphasize the social function of trade and the fact that the merchant is the link between the producer and the consumer. The authors put emphasis on the personal characteristics of the seller as an important component of the process of interaction with consumers, and on corporate culture as the foundation for building a customer-oriented organization. In addition, the authors study such components of customer orientation as concern for customer needs, proper service, maintaining business reputation and long-term relationships with customers. The authors review some publications devoted to various aspects of management, such as psychology of personality, collectives and groups; management of business communications; interpersonal communications; corporate culture; and service organization. The authors reveal the connection personal characteristics competencies psycho emotional state corporate culture customer orientation competitiveness. The authors establish that due to the instability of the retail sector, the competitiveness of organizations operating in there directly depends on such an important competitive advantage of individual employees as the ability to combine economic and psychological backgrounds.

Keywords: personnel competitiveness, organization efficiency, corporate culture, service, business reputation, retail trade.


THE STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE AS AN AGENT OF REGULATION OF SOCIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS Part 2 Organizational Foundations of Operation of the Employment Service

Author(s): S. A. Kartashov, V. D. Rozhkov, P. I. Ananchenkova

Annotation: In their article, the authors examine the organizational foundations of operation of the employment service in the modern labor market. The state employment policy is a set of measures that affect the socio-economic development of the country as well as every citizen. State employment services are special structures that carry out their activities at the expense of the budget, acting as a voluntary intermediary for employers and job seekers. The employment service promotes the employment of citizens, regardless of their level of education and professional qualifications, offering jobs in commercial organizations or government structures. The purpose of this article is to consider the organizational foundations of operation of the employment service in the modern labor market and improve the existing mechanism for promoting employment of citizens. The research conducted has shown that social networks and Web portals has become the most efficient and effective platform for solving issues related to employment during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This trend makes it possible to draw a conclusion about the need for further use of social networks and Web portals as one of the main communication platforms for assistance in employment and explanatory and targeted work with citizens.

Keywords: employment service, labor market, assistance in employment of citizens, preservation of employment, reduction of unemployment.


TECHNOLOGIES OF SELF-REGULATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF POLICE OFFICERS ABROAD: A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

Author(s): V. Yu. Dubrovsky

Annotation: The article concerns the problem of training employees of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation for activities associated with high psycho-emotional and physical loads in extreme and stressful situations. In this connection, the author tries to critically comprehend the experience of police training in this regard, which has been accumulated in a number of foreign countries. Using such a research method as comparative analysis, the author examines the existing technologies abroad aimed at acquiring self-regulation skills in extreme conditions. The author outlines educational technologies based on modeling and the case study method. At the same time, the author gives examples of such cases that contribute to the formation of practical skills and behavioral skills in stressful situations. The author notes that in foreign countries, the training of police officers differs markedly as regards terms, content and requirements. The author draws attention to the fact that the reorientation of law enforcement officers from forceful methods to soft methods leads to a decrease in aggression, tension and lethality when performing professional duties. In the end, the author concludes that the study of foreign experience in police training, subject to the Russian socio-cultural context, allows us to improve the professional level of law enforcement workers in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: self-regulation, employees of internal affairs bodies, training, stress, extreme situation, physical and psychological health.


TRANSFORMATION OF THE MONETARY AND CURRENCY POLICY OF THE EAEU COUNTRIES: SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

Author(s): Dolgorukova M. S. , Kruglyak L.I.

Annotation: Currently, the creation of the EAEU integration association is highly relevant from the point of view of the economic and social aspect. The reason for this is an unstable economic situation in the world, caused by a decrease in energy demand, as a result of the destabilization of national currencies. The integration interaction of the countries will contribute to the reduction of external factors in the implementation of transactions within the participating countries, as a result, the reduction of transaction costs for this purpose, it is initially necessary to harmonize the monetary policies of the countries. The article presents data on the GDP per capita of the participating countries, notes the positive impact on the economy of these countries, and studies the factors that influence the change in this indicator. The article presents the main theoretical aspects of monetary policy: mechanisms of its regulation, tools, direct and indirect methods. The article contains material on the methods of regulating monetary policy: monetary policy regimes, currency policy regimes, key rates of Central (National) banks, planned and factual inflation. The EAEU has been in existence since 2015, and over the past 5 years, the countries have made many changes to their monetary policies, which has been gradually bringing them closer together. At the moment, there are still differences in the mechanisms of the monetary policy, the macroeconomic indicators established by the Treaty on the Establishment of the EAEU are exceeded, but there is a trend for further smoothing out these differences.

Keywords: EAEU, monetary policy, integration, inflation rate


ANALYSIS OF THE PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING CONSTRUCTION PERMITS (BY EXAMPLE OF THE CITY OF DUSHANBE)

Author(s): U. A. Dzuraev, M. M. Madzhonova

Annotation: In their article, the authors analyze the state regulation of construction activities, in particular, the procedures for obtaining construction permits based on the Doing Business Report of the World Bank Group. Basing on the analysis of the valuation procedures and methodology of the international rating study, the authors identify some gaps in state regulation and provide some recommendations, taking into account the best practices of other countries and the requirements of international standards in this area. The authors note that in the Republic of Tajikistan (the city of Dushanbe), in order to obtain a construction permit, it is necessary to pass 26 procedures in 157 days costing 3% of the good value. As compared with the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, this is the largest number of procedures, i.e. 10 more procedures than in the region. At the same time, the number of procedures is more than twice as high as in the OECD countries, i.e. high-income countries, which indicates the complexity of obtaining construction permits in the country and requires simplification of procedures for the account of their automation and modernization. The authors conclude that it is necessary to improve national legislation in terms of determining legal liability for construction defects or problems identified after the commissioning of a construction project. It is also necessary to determine the obligations of the parties involved in the construction of the project, registration of liability insurance for possible construction defects or problems after the commissioning of the project (ten-year insurance).

Keywords: construction, obtaining permits, quality control, regulation, legal liability, insurance.


THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WORK OF THE STATE APPARATUS

Author(s): E. V. Vashalomidze

Annotation: In her article, the author considers the concepts of public administration and the efficiency of the work of civil servants in the system of public administration at the present stage of social development. The author characterizes the indicators of public administration, marks the factors that determine the level of effectiveness of public administration, identifies the criteria for the effectiveness of public administration that are common in modern management science, and suggests ways to improve it. Public administration is a practical projection of the state policy of the authorities realized with the help of a part of the state machinery - the state apparatus. In order to confirm or cancel the methods and forms of the work of the state apparatus, it is necessary to assess the effectiveness of its functioning and the quality of work of civil servants with authority. The purpose of this work is to determine the criteria for such assessment and to identify ways to improve the efficiency of the work of civil servants in the Russian Federation. In the course of her study, the author uses the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation, UN reports and the works of Russian authors who consider modern approaches to the functioning of the state administration apparatus. The author concludes that in modern society, in relation to public administration, such characteristics as the economic feasibility, productivity, quality and efficiency are becoming more and more relevant causing the need to assess the effectiveness of the functioning of the state apparatus and the quality of the work of civil servants.

Keywords: public administration, efficiency criteria, authorities, public policy, quality of management of the state apparatus.


STRESS TESTING AS A METHOD OF ENSURING THE ECONOMIC SECURITY OF A COMMERCIAL BANK IN THE CONDITIONS OF DIGITALIZATION

Author(s): E. S. Belova, K. O. Zavernyaev, L. I. Kruglyak

Annotation: In their article, the authors analyze the basic stress testing tools for assessing the level of financial stability of commercial banks. The authors character foreign and Russian risk management methods, and carry out their comparative analysis. The authors propose some methods of minimizing potential threats, based on the analysis of the ability to ensure the financial and economic security of the bank, considering the risks caused by the accelerated introduction of digital technologies into the banking system of the country. The authors pay special attention to the risks that have arisen under the influence of digitalization, as well as to the problem of countering such risks. The authors demonstrate and analyze the possibilities and disadvantages of the introduction of modern technologies in banking in general and in the process of ensuring economic security in particular. The authors consider the modern direction of development of the banking sector in Russia, taking into account the global trends of its transformation. The authors assess and analyze the risks associated with digitalization. The authors set up the proposed vectors of development of complex security systems of a credit institution under the influence of modern factors. The authors consider basic principles of the transformation of banking activities that contribute to the achievement of basic goals in the context of rapidly developing global financial digitalization.

Keywords: digitalization, economic security, stress testing, financial stability of commercial banks, banking risks.


REGARDING THE PROBLEM OF IMPLEMENTING INTERNATIONAL SAFETY CULTURE PRACTICES AT RUSSIAN ENTERPRISES

Author(s): A. E. Bazin

Annotation: The problem of the lack of integration of the occupational safety and health management system with the safety culture has been thought about for a very long time. This issue is subtly correlated with such concepts as the mentality of a Russian person, his/her character traits, the fear of adopting something new that especially came from abroad, the economic well-being of individual companies and corruption, a lack of understanding of what a safety culture is, the incorrect introduction of a management system. A comparison is made between the international program Vision Zero, which is aimed at improving workplace safety, and certain provisions of Article 212 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation in order to demonstrate that much of those provisions can be reduced to one rule so that not to confuse employees and those who are responsible for the safety of workers at enterprises and workstations. The author singly defines the concept of safety culture: the definition, how the safety culture will help to avoid industrial injuries, and what the key elements that must be adhered to are. The author concludes that, despite all the achievements of the safety culture, it is impossible to attain zero injuries at work, but it is possible to provide the most favorable working conditions for workers.

Keywords: injuries, safety culture, production, management system, zero injuries.


INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES OF COUNTERING MONEY LAUNDERING ILLEGALLY OBTAINED

Author(s): O. V. Anistratenko

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of the demand for the use of modern technological solutions in order to optimize the supervision of compliance with legislation in the field of countering the laundering of ill-gotten gains and the financing of terrorism. The author states that one of the key organizations in the field of AML/CFT, the Group for the Development of Financial Measures to Combat Money Laundering, is currently setting a course for the digital transformation of supervisory systems. In order to determine the stage of transformation of AML/CFT systems, where the states that have achieved the greatest success in this direction are, the author studies the experience of the United States, Singapore and Hong Kong (China), in particular, their achievements in the field of automation of AML/CFT supervision. The author establishes that, despite some methodological groundwork, there is no information publicly available about any existing practical solutions that would be integrated on the basis of state supervisory authorities. The author conducts an analysis of the innovative platform Know Your Customer, which is slated for implementation in 2022-2023 by the Bank of Russia. As a result of such analysis, the author notes a positive trend towards the formation of innovative automated solutions in the field of AML/CFT. The author also identifies the existing legal nuances that do not currently allow implementing the system being developed.

Keywords: money laundering, countering money laundering, client identification, security screen, AML/CFT (Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorist) supervision, digital transformation of AML/CFT systems.


TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN WORKING WITH MIGRANTS: FOREIGN REVIEW

Author(s): Sh. Yu. Akramov, F. Sh. Akramov

Annotation: The key social problems facing the world today are demographic aging, climate change, security, the global race for talent, digitalization and economic disparity. All this has an impact on migration. The task facing the states focused on the reception of migrants is to create a system that would streamline migration in the long term and be fully based on domestic social values and international law. This article is devoted to the analysis of the problems of introducing innovative technologies in working with migrants. The article is important today due to the growing volumes of international movements of people for geopolitical, climatic and economic reasons, on the one hand, and due to the introduction of IT into the systems for tracking, registering and adapting migrants in the host community, on the other hand. In their article, the authors provide some analytical and statistical data reflecting the landscape of modern migration processes in foreign countries, and also some examples showing the introduction and use of innovative (primarily digital) technologies in working with displaced persons. In addition, the authors touch upon the issues of ethics of their application, and pay attention to the prospects and barriers preventing the spread of technological innovations in working with migrants.

Keywords: migration, technologies, innovation, technological solutions, work with migrants.


CONTENT AND FEATURES OF THE MODERN ECONOMIC CRISIS

Author(s): Lipai T. P., Yichang .

Annotation: The distinctive manifestation of the economic crisis is the crisis of overproduction, which simply means that the economy is not developing and there is a regression, depression and self-stigmatization, people are difficult to employ or there is a large number of unemployed, which leads to a decline in the standard of living, and most of the enterprises face closure and bankruptcy. This article uses comparative analysis method, empirical analysis method, induction and deduction to compares and analyzes the previous economic crisis and the current Covid-19 crisis from the perspective of macroeconomy. Based on theory and practice, authors analyze the cause and effect of different crises from views of different scholars in different periods.

Keywords: social processes, economic crisis, depression, self- stigmatization, Covid-19 pandemic, macroeconomy, crisis management


Issue #3 of year 2021

BALANCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF INCLUSIVE STRUCTURES IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS

Author(s): V. D. Bairamov, D. G. Gurtskaya

Annotation: , , , . , : , , . , , , . , . , (), (), . , -, , , - , . , , : , , , ,, , , , , , .

Keywords: social inclusion, social structures, inclusive practices


CONSUMPTION STRATEGIES OF GENERATION Z IN MODERNRUSSIA

Author(s): Khalikov M., Sidorov D.

Annotation: The article depicts strategies and methods, which representatives of Generation Z use for choosing material goods for individual consumption purposes. A part of the article is devoted to Z Generations description. Members of Generation Z are already active consumers, and their purchasing power will increase over time. That is why it is important now, in advance, to study the strategies that its members are guided by when purchasing various products. Generation Z in Russia differs significantly from previous generations due to conditions of development and socialization. Its members are the first generation to become members of the digital society from the moment they were born. Generation Z in Russia has its peculiarities in purchasing behavior. Those behavioral patterns require a revision of business models for those companies that aim to effectively sell goods and services to this generation.

Keywords: Generation Z, Russia, consumption, generation, consumer behavior, information society, market.


SOCIAL CAPITAL OF THE ORGANIZATION IN THE CONTEXT OF INCREASING SOCIO-ECONOMIC RISKS

Author(s): V. N. Titov

Annotation: Modern competitive conditions are largely determined by access to information, resources and partners, i.e. inclusion in the network of relations. The current socio-economic conditions in the world and in our country actualize the importance of the concept risk society. In his article, the author critically analyzes the scientific literature devoted to the problem of risks in modern society. The author emphasizes that the concept risk society (W. Beck, E.Giddens) is relevant in relation to the analysis of the modern crisis, considering the Russian realities noted in the literature (O. N. Yanitsky). It is determined in the paper that the current stage of the development of the risk society is complicated, in addition to the traditional risks of the modern era associated with contradictions between the pace of advancement of scientific and technological progress and the ecological human environment, etc., as well as with the rupture of inter- organizational networks of relations, which inevitably negatively affects the level of confidence as the most important cognitive and emotional component of social capital. The emerging type of risk can be described as the risk of social distance, the risk of self-isolation. In his article, the author also examines the impact of risks associated with increasing social distance on intra-organizational social capital, defined as a level of confidence positively associated with loyalty, cooperation, and the density of communication within organizational ties. The author concludes that an increase in social distance leads to an increase in social anxiety, and a decrease in the level of interpersonal and institutional confidence.

Keywords: social capital, organization, inter-organizational networks, socio-economic risks, confidence, crisis.


MENTAL CHECKUPS OF EMPLOYEES AND THEIR LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE IN LABOR RELATIONS

Author(s): Yu. S. Taranova

Annotation: The article is devoted to mental checkups of employees. Such examinations are of legal importance in labor relations, since many types of professional activities can only be allowed to mentally healthy workers who have passed the appropriate examinations. Medical examinations of the mental health of employees help to select employees professionally and prevent people suffering from mental disorders from working in a position that is contraindicative for them for mental health reasons. Labor relations involve the following types of mental examinations: examination by a psychiatrist as part of a medical inspection, mandatory psychiatric examination, examination to detect whether a citizen suffers or not from a disease included in the list of medical contraindications for working with information that constitutes a state secret, psychophysiological examinations of employees of nuclear energy facilities. Those employees, who do not pass the above checkups, must be suspended from work by the employer. The employer bears the cost of such examinations, however who should bear the cost of examinations conducted for working with information that constitutes a state secret, this is not legally resolved. The author proposes setting a legal regulation that would oblige any employer to compensate the employee for his/her cost of obtaining a certificate for working with information that constitutes a state secret.

Keywords: medical examination; information that constitutes a state secret; mandatory psychiatric examination; psychophysiological examinations; employees of nuclear energy facilities.


PROBLEMS OF TEACHING AND PRACTICAL TRAINING ON THE RESIDENCY PROGRAM HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Author(s): Yu. Yu. Snegireva

Annotation: In her article, the author examines the results of the full-scale reform of one of the key elements of the medical sphere - the training of medical personnel on the postgraduate and residency program Health Organization and Public Health. Such reform has been taking place in the Russian healthcare system over the past decade. The health system organization plays a fundamental role for the citizens and the economy of every state. The preservation and maintenance of public health is important for any country, regardless of the current level of development of its health system. In recent years, we have seen important transformations in higher and postgraduate professional medical education associated with the tasks facing the higher medical school to transform the educational process. However, there is a shortage of personnel in national health systems, which is particularly acute during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this regard, it is necessary to ensure high-quality training of residents in the field of health organization and public health, which depends on the degree of innovation and scientific content of the programs offered to students. The main global health challenges and possible responses to them are shaped in the educational programs for training highly qualified personnel (residents, postgraduates), including those programs hummered out by the State Budgetary Institution Research Institute of Healthcare Organization and Medical Management of the Moscow Department of Healthcare. In her article, the author uses the publications of medical experts who study the issues of teaching and practical training on the residency program Health Organization and Public Health. In order to analyze the problems in the system of training young doctors, and considering the opinions of medical specialists about postgraduate education, the author in her article uses the study of MIR company conducted with the help of Doctors Handbook application. A total of 7,838 doctors and medical professionals from all regions of Russia participated in the survey on postgraduate education. Among the respondents, 30% of doctors were taking residencies, and 7% of doctors are still taking residencies at the moment. All in all, the study accommodated the opinions of 2,874 doctors.

Keywords: public health, healthcare system; training of medical personnel; residency; qualified specialists.


TRANSACTION COSTS OF THE ENTERPRISE IN PERSONNEL TRAINING

Author(s): A. I. Satdykov

Annotation: The article is devoted to the problem of investment by enterprises in the training of future employees. The author draws attention to the fact that this largely depends on reducing the size of transaction costs associated with establishing relationships with educational organizations. The author notes that such costs, first of all, should include the costs of searching for information, negotiating, opportunistic behavior of competitors, and others. The author demonstrates that in Russia, the value of such costs is so large for each individual enterprise that the opportunity costs of finding employees in the labor market are preferable to joint training at educational organizations. Based on the identified and described groups of transaction costs, the author conducts a comparative analysis of the institutional and economic conditions created in the United States, Great Britain, South Korea and Germany for the development of partnerships between enterprises and educational organizations. In the end, the author concludes that the data obtained is of practical importance in designing the conceptual framework for the national state policy aimed at the development of the system of training qualified specialists.

Keywords: transaction costs, enterprise, on-the-job training, institutions, comparative analysis.


REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF THE MEDIATIZATION OF SOCIETY ON THE NATURE OF INFOWAR

Author(s): N. R. Krasovskaya, A. A. Gulyaev

Annotation: The article concerns a change in the nature of information warfare under the influence of the mediatization of society, which is becoming an actual psychological problem. The authors outline the key features of the media. The media has a decisive influence on individual and mass consciousness. The technology of manipulating the consciousness and behavior of people is the basis of such influence. The methodological tool of this work is a system analysis method. The authors analyze various manipulative techniques in the media. This is a system where the word, image, and video play a key role, and their main goal is to provoke people into behavior that benefits manipulators. The authors reveal that modern society is becoming more and more mediatized every year, falling under the influence of virtual communications and fakes. The authors of the article conclude that most people are oblivious of responsibility for the distribution of false messages, images or videos. Therefore, influencing the information culture is a key problem in the field of legislation. Moreover, such influence should be strict and mass, considering that any words or images you distribute should correlate with the responsibility for the content that you are trying to distribute.

Keywords: media, communication, mediatization, infowar, fake, manipulation.


THE STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE AS AN AGENT OF REGULATION OF SOCIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS Part 1 Formation and Development of the Labor Mediation System in Russia: A Historical Review (XXth Century through the Turn of the XXIst Century)

Author(s): S. A. Kartashov, V. D. Rozhkov, P. I. Ananchenkova

Annotation: In any society and at any stage of historical development, labor is one of the fundamental factors of social and labor relations, and the problem of employment and its regulation attract the attention of not only researchers in the scientific context, but also state authorities from the position of applied relevance in the context of the implementation of state economic and social policy measures. In their article, the authors, based on the methodology of historical analysis, consider the main stages of the development of the labor mediation system and the formation of the state system for promoting employment of the population, institutionalized in 1991 in the State Employment Service. The authors conclude that the current trends in the global and local economic space, the processes that are taking place in the labor market, technological and functional innovations in the professional sphere, as well as demographic aspects inevitably affect the sphere of labor and employment. Today, the State Employment Service is facing new challenges and must solve new tasks. But with more than a hundred-year experience in labor mediation and a thirty-year experience in functioning in the structure of the state machinery, and considering the demand for its services, the Russian employment assistance system has good prospects for further development and efficiency improvement.

Keywords: labor, labor market, employment, social and labor relations, unemployment, labor mediation, employment service.


MILLENNIALS IN THE LABOR MARKET: A SOCIOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF GENERATION Y

Author(s): E. G. Karpova, I. V. Sonov

Annotation: In the third decade of the XXI century, a curious demographic dynamic has developed in terms of attracting staff, a workforce consisting of millennials, or generation Y. It is also called the Next generation. Therefore, the most significant for a potential employer are the expectations and approaches to work on the part of millennials, who, according to experts, already in 2020 accounted for 50 % of the workforce. In the near future, differences between generations will increasingly become an additional factor affecting social and labor relations. In their article, the authors, based on the study of Russian and foreign sources, consider some features of the representatives of generation Y, or millennials. The authors reveal the features that characterize millennials as a social group of modern society and a segment of labor resources. The authors conclude that millennials are the most significant generation that determines the content of the labor market at the present time and in the near future. They will become the main factor in the transformation of social and labor phenomena and processes related to a wide range of socio-economic environment, such as employment, consumption, income and expenses, needs, values, attitude, etc.

Keywords: generations, millennials, sociological portrait, labor market, labor resources.


ETHICS IN MEDICAL ADVERTISING: A THEORETICAL ASPECT

Author(s): E. V. Dianina, E. V. Moreeva

Annotation: In their article, the authors consider theoretical approaches to the definition of ethical standards in medical advertising. The authors describe the main characteristics of advertising as a method of marketing communications in relation to the medical services market, which is one of the most common and effective ways to lure current and prospective patients. The authors note that the development of methods, technologies and channels of advertising communication actualizes, to an even higher degree than before, the need to take into account ethical aspects in advertising medical products, services and organizations. The authors formulate theoretical aspects of the ethics of advertising communications in relation to the field of medical care. The authors note that one of the most acute discussions that arose in connection with the development of marketing in the field of healthcare was related to the fear that advertising would lead to a situation where medical activity would turn into overly commercial one. Thus, research in the field of medical ethics, which intersects with advertising ethics and provides a cultural and normative basis for advertising communications in the field of medicine science and healthcare, has become widespread. The authors conclude that the ethics of advertising communications ultimately affects not only the attraction of patients and the growth of the volume and profitability of medical services sold, but also forms a positive image of a medical organization.

Keywords: advertising, communications, medical services, ethics, advertising ethics, medical advertising.


PROBLEMS OF ENSURING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION OF STUDENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHALLENGES

Author(s): P. I. Ananchenkova, O. A. Volkova, E. M. Efimova

Annotation: In their article, the authors consider some approaches to assessing the quality of educational activities and training of students in the context of the transition of educational organizations to the digital economy and digitalization of the educational process. Given the transformation of the education system and the transition to digital technologies, defining the lines of the development of educational activities and training of students, and the problem of the quality of education and its assessment are becoming relevant. The development of educational activities determines the desire of all participants involved in the learning process to have complete information about both educational organizations that train students, and the quality of educational activities and their availability. This contributes to the adoption of objective management decisions to improve the quality of education of domestic educational organizations, which determines the relevance of the topic of the article chosen and speaks of the theoretical and practical significance of the article. The purpose of the article is to identify the main trends in the education system and in the assessment of the quality of educational activities and training of students in the context of the transformation of the education system and the transition to digital technologies. The authors conclude that the year 2020 was a special year for the development of all spheres of the economy, including educational activities. Special conditions were created for assessing the factors that stimulated the development of the education system and the arrival of new participants who were able to adapt to the transformational processes in modern society.

Keywords: educational activity, quality of education, digitalization of the educational process, online education, transformation of education, digital resources.


INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF BANK INSOLVENCY (BANKRUPTCY) SETTLEMENT: SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

Author(s): A. M.Kabanova, L. I. Kruglyak

Annotation: The article examines the features of the settlement of bank insolvency (bankruptcy) in world practice. There are some peculiarities of the functioning of a commercial banks bankruptcy procedure in each country, which are important and interesting from a socio-economic point of view. This problem is quite relevant for the modern Russian banking system as well, due to the fact that the activities of domestic commercial banks, which do not have sufficient equity capital, are influenced by the global financial crises, sanctions and cyber fraud. This causes a loss of customers funds and their distrust of credit institutions. The banking activity is under a variety of external and internal risks, which are associated with both objective and subjective factors. Therefore, the methods of banking risk management are constantly being improved, but they cannot fully protect the customers of commercial banks and their shareholders from financial losses in the event of insolvency (bankruptcy) of credit institutions. The purpose of this article is, relying on the current legislation, theoretical foundations and the experience of foreign countries, to analyze the insolvency (bankruptcy) process of credit institutions and consider solutions to this problem with minimal social and economic consequences in different countries.

Keywords: financial insolvency (bankruptcy), financial stability, crisis, bank, supervision.


Issue #2 of year 2021

THE NEED FOR MOTIVATION AND READINESS OF EMPLOYEES TO MASTER DIGITAL SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES

Author(s): P. I. Ananchenkova, S. A. Shapiro

Annotation: In the current socio-economic conditions complicated by the pandemic, both around the world and in Russia, there is an urgent need to master digital skills. Such skills have come to the fore in the formation of new professional competencies with the majority of employees, regardless of their type of activity, gender and age. Employers are also aware that continuous training efforts are needed to reduce the growing skill gap. The need for professional development, and in some cases, retraining of employees, has increased especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, as evidenced by the results of ongoing global and local studies. In their paper, the authors provide some data of their research conducted by the method of secondary analysis of the international survey carried out by The Boston Consulting Group reflecting employees attitude to the prospects of digitalization and its impact on employment. As a result, the authors conclude that the pace of the ongoing global socio-economic transformations causes not only changes in approaches to the motivational component of working with personnel, but also foregrounds the need to assess the degree of perception of such transformations by employees, their readiness for their own professional development and mastering new skills and competencies that are required in changing social and labor relations.

Keywords: digitalization, social and labor relations, employment, motivation, skills, competencies, upskilling.


ANALYSIS OF THE FRAMES OF WOMENS EMPLOYMENT IN THE SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Author(s): E. A. Chefonova, A. L. Sevostyanov

Annotation: This study is devoted to the analysis of social practices of women employed in the field of agricultural entrepreneurship. The field stage of the study was conducted in the Belgorod region in 2020 In this regard, a target sample was used. The criteria for its selection were as follows: (1) sex a female; (2) registered as an individual entrepreneur; (3) a representative of the agricultural sector; and (4) operates in the Belgorod region. The focused interview method was used to collect primary sociological information. The processing of the materials of the focused interview was carried out by applying the methods of analyzing an individual case and reconstructing frames using observed social practices. The research methodology included consideration of three blocks of the problem: the history of a woman, an agricultural entrepreneur; the womens practices in the system of agricultural entrepreneurship; and the actions taken for the development of a woman, an individual entrepreneur. The study allowed us to conclude that the professional activities of women-farmers were equally influenced, on the one hand, by external social factors, on the other hand, by family, biographical and individual contexts. In most of the cases studied, womens entrepreneurship was forced and caused by either unemployment, or poverty, or divorce.

Keywords: employment frames, rural women, agricultural entrepreneurship.


ADAPTING AND DEVELOPING THE COMPANYS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN THE ERA OF THE PANDEMIC AND REMOTE EMPLOYMENT

Author(s): E. A. Chernykh, E. V. Loginova

Annotation: The relevance of this study is explained by the fact that with the development of new forms of employment, and due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the remote employment format has firmly become a reality, radically changing the understanding of personnel management and giving grounds for rethinking the role of the companys organizational culture. The subject of the article is management decisions in the field of formation, maintenance, development and change of organizational culture in the context of the mass transition to remote employment as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors examine the major problems remote employment poses, and suggest ways to solve them through organizational culture. Adaptation and purposeful work with its components are necessary conditions for the effective functioning of any company, both in normal mode and during remote employment. The authors consider the methods of forming, developing and maintaining an effective culture for remote employees adapted to the specifics of remote employment. The authors in their study use statistical data that characterize the organizational culture of the Russian and foreign enterprises in the era of pandemic, polls and surveys, including those conducted by the authors themselves. Based on the analysis, the authors draw some conclusions and propose some recommendations.

Keywords: organizational culture, corporate culture, COVID-19 pandemic, remote employment, corporate social network, adaptation.


THE IMPACT OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE PENSION REFORM ON THE LABOR MARKET AND EMPLOYMENT

Author(s): I. V. Filimonova

Annotation: The article deals with the assessment of the impact of raising the retirement age on employment and unemployment, taking into account other factors that affect the labor market. The author reveals the link between the decrease in unemployment in the 2000s and the drop in the working population. The author detects a growth of the working population during this period, considering the statutory benefits as regards the introduction of retirement ages. The author establishes the cause of the decline in the labor force and employment in the first quarter of 2020, and appreciates the results of the increase in the number of working population in relation to unemployment and wage dynamics. The author examines the employment prospects of older people both in general and in certain types of economic activity. The author identifies and analyzes the factors contributing to the decline in employment and stimulating it. The author finally concludes that the smooth functioning of the labor market in the condition of increasing the retirement age suggests taking state decisions on changing the structure of the economy and the income of certain groups of the population.

Keywords: raising the retirement age, labor market, employment of persons of retirement age, labor supply, age of disability.


THE SOCIAL VALUE OF HIGHER EDUCATION AS SEEN THROUGH THE PRISM OF PUBLIC OPINION

Author(s): E. N. Tkachenko

Annotation: The sustainable development of the society is impossible without the appropriate educational level of its members. Any state needs citizens who are able to meet the challenges of the time demonstrating professional competence, emotional intelligence and flexibility, critical thinking and independence in decision-making, and possessing moral and cultural values. These cognitive and behavioral abilities are most fully formed at the stage of higher education. Based on the secondary analysis method, the author in her article provides the data of several representative All-Russian sociological studies conducted by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM). The data analysis reflects Russians attitude to higher education as a basic value. The author concludes that education is a fairly stable social institution. The analysis of the attitude of different generations to the value of education proves that higher education is highly important, while both sociologically and statistically there is a certain decrease in its availability and quality. The data of representative All-Russian studies the author provides in her paper indicate that the attitude to education has eventually undergone changes only in certain aspects of its significance. Although higher education is losing its position in the system of value orientations of modern Russian society, it is premature to talk about its devaluation. Despite various success patterns, young people are still focused on higher education as a tool for achieving life and professional goals.

Keywords: education, value, public opinion, survey, attitude to education, value of higher education.


THE LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MEDICAL DOCUMENTS DURING THE EMPLOYMENT OF EMPLOYEES

Author(s): Yu. S. Taranova

Annotation: The article is devoted to determining the legal significance of medical documents submitted by an employee during his/her employment. The conclusion made upon results of the preliminary medical examination containing information that no medical contraindications to work have been identified in relation to the person, empowers the employer to allow the employee to work. A personal medical record is a proof of an employees ability to perform a particular job for health reasons, and also indicates that when performing work, the employee does not pose hazard to others. The decision made by the commission upon results of the mandatory psychiatric examination indicates that the employee is mentally qualified to perform a particular job. Also, in some cases such decision is a necessary document to be presented by the employee during the preliminary medical examination. A certificate confirming the fact of establishing a disability and an individual rehabilitation or habilitation program entitle a disabled person to corresponding benefits and guarantees. The author concludes that a preliminary medical examination should be conducted before the registration of an employment relationship with an employee. This rule should be set in the labor legislation. The author also proposes that a mandatory preliminary psychiatric examination should be specially outlined in the labor legislation.

Keywords: employment, preliminary medical examination, personal medical record, mandatory psychiatric examination, disability certificate, individual rehabilitation or habilitation program.


FEATURES OF TRAINING OF SHIP CREW MEMBERS IN THE FIELD OF FIRST AID AND MEDICAL CARE

Author(s): Tonkonog V.V., Timchenko T.N. , Golovan T.V.

Annotation: The specifics of the work of the ship's crew members during the voyages are determined by the length of stay in a confined space and close communication between the crew members. In this regard, there is an increasing need to comply with the conditions for ensuring the safety of seafarers ' life. In addition, the long distance of ships from the places of inpatient treatment, and as a rule, the lack of a medical officer and proper equipment in the ship's crew, leads to the need and importance of studying the issues of first aid and medical care during the voyage. The article analyzes the legal framework governing the provision of medical care and the requirements for the provision of medical equipment and medicines to ship crew members during the voyage. The importance and necessity of medical training of the fleet command staff (captain, assistant captain), which is part of the general professional training of seafarers, is determined. The specification of the minimum standard of competence in the field of basic first aid and medical care in accordance with the requirements of international conventions is analyzed. The article considers and analyzes the curricula for training programs in marine medicine, implemented by the private educational institution of additional professional education (CHOU DPO) "Marine Systems" in St. Petersburg. Conclusions are drawn about the need to develop legislative norms in the Russian Federation that regulate both the composition of the ship's first aid kit and the types of medical care provided on board the ship.

Keywords: medical training, life safety of seafarers, medical care, first aid, ship's first aid kit.


The Role of the Educational System in Ensuring the Sustainable Development of the National Economy of Tajikistan

Author(s): Sh. A. Dzuraeva, Z. Kh. Ibodzoda

Annotation: The article concerns some problems of the educational system of the Republic of Tajikistan and its impact on the development of the economy. The authors analyze the state expenditures on education as a percentage of the total expenditures of the state budget. The authors consider the indicators of education development for 2016-2020, which shows that the set goals have not been achieved, despite a slight positive trend in this area. The educational infrastructure is a far cry from what was desired, especially in rural areas of the republic. The material and technical support to schools does not meet modern requirements. The practice of managing the school system needs to be streamlined. The authors note that this is due to underfunding of the industry and insufficient institutional changes. Also, the authors pay attention to the need for intense development of both secondary vocational and pre-school education. The authors stress that one year of pre-school education gives better results of education in secondary school. At the same time, the dynamics of pre-school coverage should be associated with both stimulating the establishment of pre-school institutions and boosting employment and income of the population to increase the economic accessibility of such institutions.

Keywords: education, state budget, national economy, sustainable development, indicators, pre-school education.


LABOR POTENTIAL OF THE EMPLOYEE AND THE ORGANIZATION: ANALYSIS AND NEW APPROACHES

Author(s): Yegorshin A.P., Guskova I.V., Troitskaya A.A.

Annotation: In their article, the authors analyze the differences between the concepts that characterize human activity, i.e. labor force, human factor, labor resources, human resources, human capital, labor potential and human potential. The authors list various definitions of labor potential, and define the category. The authors set that the category labor potential is related to the employee, the organization and the region. The authors take their own approach to the classification of the components of the employees labor potential and the organizations labor potential. According to the authors, the labor potential of an organization consists of 6 components (individual indicators), namely physiological, educational, professional, innovative, social and economic potentials. The labor potential of an employee, along with the above components, includes his/her personal and business potential. In order to determine the composition of the above indicators, the specific weights and the integral formula for calculating the labor potential of the organization, a group of 114 experts was formed consisting of scientists, specialists, managers of different levels. This made it possible to identify the specific weights of the components of the employees labor potential and the organizations labor potential expressed as a decimal fraction. By systematic processing of the results of the expert survey using the methods of mathematical statistics, the authors clarify the components and particular indicators of the labor potential of the employee and the labor potential of the organization. Among the components of the employees labor potential and the organizations labor potential, the experts ranked the professional potential as the highest (0.22); the educational potential ranked the second, and the innovation potential ranked the third. The authors approve the formula for calculating the integral indicators of the organizations labor potential as the sum of the points of individual indicators as determined using the weight coefficients.

Keywords: human capital, labor potential of an employee, labor potential of an organization, professional labor potential, labor force, labor resources.


ON THE IMPORTANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

Author(s): N. R. Krasovskaya, A. A. Gulyaev

Annotation: Currently, information is the most important element of the life of modern society. Artificial intelligence (AI) is able to process huge amounts of information in an extremely short time. Therefore, this high-tech product is used in a variety of areas, both for the benefit and to the detriment of society. The potential dangers of using AI technologies require a comprehensive study. Artificial intelligence is most actively used in the financial sector, in particular, in the banking sector, where it serves for the analysis of financial markets, risk assessment and forecasting. The information is also used to create fake news and deepfakes based on artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence, various chatbots and analysis algorithms based on AI are used as a means of manipulating the human mind within the framework of the employment of technologies of socio- political engineering in order to create social tension and destabilize the internal political situation. Each state is interested in using artificial intelligence in the field of national security. At the present stage, the most important problem of monitoring the development of AI technologies is international cooperation as far as agreements and law-making are concerned. Everyone should be aware of the principles that underlie the creation and application of AI products in the Internet space.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, information, Internet, social networks, fake, deepfake.


Modern Characteristics of the Ruble Exchange Rate and Balance of Payments

Author(s): K. G. Bunevich, T. A. Gorbacheva

Annotation: The dynamics of the exchange rate of the national currency is of key importance for the economy of any country. To date, the most common form of the currency regulation is the use of market mechanisms as a stabilizer of macroeconomic changes. Such practice is the most effective in terms of usefulness for economic entities. The purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of the ruble exchange rate on the balance of payments of the Russian Federation. To study the information, the authors use the methods of critical, comparative, graphical, correlation and regression analysis and a systems approach. The authors carry out the analysis of the dynamics of the exchange rate of the Russian ruble, the G-7 countries, as well as the BRICS countries. The authors consider the exchange rate shift in countries with a significant share of oil in GDP and exports, whose currencies are not pegged to the US dollar. The authors demonstrate that in the global economic environment, various factors influence not only the ruble exchange rate, but also the US dollar exchange rate. The authors investigate the relationship between the balance of payments and the ruble exchange rate, and find out that there is no correlation between the balance of payments and the ruble exchange rate.

Keywords: exchange rate, balance of payments, currency interventions, currency regulation, current account, surplus.


DO THE PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS OF THE FUEL AND ENERGY SECTOR FOCUS ON DIGITALIZATION?

Author(s): O. V. Budzinskaya

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of the impact of professional standards on the professional development of employees in the context of digitalization of the economy. The author examines the asynchrony of the subjects of activity aimed at staffing the digital economy, which only increases the gaps between the needs of employers and the competencies of graduates from universities and the bulk of the workforce. The author notes that the Federal Project Personnel for the Digital Economy, the development of the National Qualifications System, etc. are aimed at strengthening institutional ties in this direction. The author emphasizes that the requirements contained in the professional standards, which are set out in the federal projects, should serve as a guide for higher education in the formation of educational programs. In addition, the author in her the article analyzes the skills and knowledge required to perform generalized labor functions throughout the production chain of the oil and gas industry. This allows the author to justify the atemporal nature of the wording contained in the professional standards, and reveal that today the professional standards of the fuel and energy sector do not fully reflect the ongoing digital transformation of business processes. The author finally provides some recommendations on the wording of skills and knowledge in professional standards.

Keywords: staffing, labor market, professional standard, qualification assessment, personnel training.


GENDER INEQUALITY IN THE SOCIAL AND LABOR SPHERE AS A GLOBAL PROBLEM

Author(s): V. O. Brostrem

Annotation: The problem of gender inequality as a form of social differentiation of men and women has been considered in the scientific books since the end of the XIX century. Issues of employment, social and labor relations, professional and career advancement and many others that reflect the subject area of gender research in a specified thematic context inevitably correlate with social stereotypes that demonstrate gender characteristics through the prism of special, specific character traits, biological and physiological distinctive features. As a result, stable social images of both men and women are entrenched in the public consciousness, which images, in turn, determine the attitude towards them in matters that are not related to biology or physiology. The author in her article examines the current trends as regards solving the problem of gender inequality and achieving equality in the social and labor sphere, its certain aspects. The author provides data from some international studies (in particular, Gallup, the World Bank, the International Labor Organization, etc.). The author finally concludes that, despite the successes achieved, the problem of gender inequality (mainly against women) is still relevant.

Keywords: gender, sex, man, woman, inequality, social and labor sphere.


CONTEMPORARY SYSTEM OF EDUCATION: INNOVATIVE NATURE OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROBLEMS OF TRAINING DOCTORAL STUDENTS

Author(s): Lipai T. P., Gevorgyan M. R.

Annotation: Abstract.The modern labor market requires skills to operate such technologies and knowledge that meet the needs of the information society, thus to prepare the young generation for new roles in this society. The innovative nature of the development of doctoral students' education is becoming the most important tool in its competition with other social institutions. One finds himself put face to face with new civilization challenges, which often he does not even have time to comprehend, let alone find an adequate answer to them. Moreover, this is not only about deciding the fate of mankind, or nation states, but about the everyday life of ordinary or, as it was said in Russian literature of the XIX century, a "little" person who must find himself in the carnival stream of modern show culture, in accordance with its laws, independently design the scenario of your life, its "design", to study to act and make decisions in a constantly changing environment. This requires the formation of appropriate personal qualities, a certain culture of personality. However, what should this culture be like, how it can be developed and what the role here can (should) be played by the modern, specifically the humanitarian education? The answers to this question may vary. Nowadays it is necessary to improve the quality and effectiveness of doctoral education in order to increase their competitiveness for employment. The authors of this paper argue that modern universities can prepare specialists aimed at innovative development of their professional activities, only relying on creative lectors.

Keywords: social institutions, social processes, doctoral education, soft skills, stigma, innovative development, management of education.


NEW FORMS OF LABOR RELATIONS: INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND USE OF PERSONNEL IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROCESS

Author(s): P. V. Simonin

Annotation: The author in his article analyzes the latest trends in the institutionalization of social and labor relations in the context of digitalization and automation of workplaces. The author notes that the use of labor in the current conditions cannot be called either a crisis or an intellectually verified system of views. The author draws attention to the fact that in the process of digitalization of labor, it is important to take into account not only access to information about the labor market, but also the state of jobs. The author emphasizes that it is also important how this is related to the working space that determines the conditions and quality of work, the limits of wages that are formed in the context of individual professions based on the mechanism of supply and demand, the role of trade unions, as well as the established norm of capital distribution. The author proves that individuals in a certain institutional structure, in addition to the costs of concluding contracts, specification and protection of property rights, use resources differently in the epidemic process as an ecosystem (for example, reducing working hours or jobs). The author finally concludes that in the labor market that uses remote technologies, employers are not ready to consider wages worthy of employee productivity, and are likely to expand the potential of workplace automation.

Keywords: labor relations, institutionalization, unemployment, jobs, information and digitalization, institutional framework, trade unions, reasonable wages.


Issue #1 of year 2021

DIGITALIZATION OF EDUCATION: POTENTIAL, LIMITS AND SOCIAL RISKS

Author(s): N. G. Yakovleva

Annotation: The article deals with the relationship between the socio-economic problems of education development and the digitalization of the economy and society. The essence of digitalization is defined as a process in the course of which changes in technology and the content of work lead to the development of the creative content of human activity. The author draws attention to the fact that in Russia, real processes that can be classified as digitalization are still mostly simulative in nature. This is supported by relevant statistical data and qualitative conclusions. The author substantiates the thesis that the processes of education and digitalization have a common basis (the creative content of human activity), but lie in different essential planes, since digitalization is a form, and education is a meaningful process. The author emphasizes that today in the field of education, there is a process of general and universal digitization, which squeezes out the creative content from it. The author demonstrates that the regressive processes of commercialization, bureaucratization and managerization of education we observe today find an adequate form in the form of digitalization. In conclusion, the author considers the challenges for society that the digitalization of education carries, in particular, social risks.

Keywords: education, digitalization, commercialization of education, bureaucratization of education, social risks


THE MECHANISM OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITY OF AN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION

Author(s): R.R.Charyev, E.V.Duloglu

Annotation: The effectiveness of management in an economic organization is largely determined by whether a manager possesses a high level of emotional intelligence, abilities and skills of its use in his/her management activities. The emotional component is practically present both in the development of planned tasks for the implementation of management decisions, and at their completion, that is, in each management cycle. The authors of the article consider the mechanism of emotional intelligence as a significant element of the effectiveness of the implementation of management functions and methods. Its effectiveness is particularly evident in such areas of management activity of an economic organization as the formation of a corporate culture, the creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages and, of course, in the processes of innovation implementation. One should not underestimate the role of the emotional factor in human behavior, because in the end, the tasks of the manager are reduced to combining the efforts of his/her employees to achieve business goals. Here, it is important to know his/her emotional state, which is determined by the inner world of a person. But in order for the manager to realize this circumstance and use it in his/her management activities, he/she, first of all, must constantly work on the formation of high emotional intelligence and skills of its use in management practice. The authors of the article scientifically substantiate the concept and content of the main components of emotional intelligence using numerous scientific sources. The authors recommend applying it in management practice as a driving gear for the effective use of various approaches, functions, methods, techniques and procedures of management

Keywords: emotional intelligence, artificial intelligence, management activity, management, manager.


Economic Approach to the Issue of Cost Measurements of Compensation for Moral Damage

Author(s): R. A. Samsonov

Annotation: In the modern economic theory of valuation, the issue of measuring compensation for moral damage remains one of the most complex, nontrivial and least examined problems. This is due to the influence of a whole range of objective and subjective factors. Legal science, legislative and judicial practice feel a need for the development of scientifically based methods for correctly determining the amount of compensation for non-pecuniary damage, as the institution of compensation for moral damage has been actively developed in modern Russian law. Based on the methodology of the economic approach and the analysis of researches of foreign and domestic scientists, legislative and judicial practice, a draft guidelines of the Committee of the Association of lawyers of Russia for determining the amount of compensation for moral damage, when there is an infringement of life, health and physical integrity of any individual, the author in his article considers the main issues relevant to a value measurement of such compensation. In order to improve the algorithm for determining the amount of compensation for non-pecuniary damage, the author proposes more clearly distinguishing the competence of the expert community, in terms of conducting a cost assessment, and judicial prerogative in establishing adjusting factors that require special legal qualifications.

Keywords: economic approach, cost measurements, compensation, moral damage, methodological recommendations.


ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF PREVENTION EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

Author(s): E.S.Molchanova, A.V.Dosugova

Annotation: Protection of the population and territories from emergency situations is a priority task of the state. The economic component in ensuring the security of the population and territories is of paramount importance. Material, environmental and socio-economic damage from various natural disasters and man-made accidents has an extremely negative impact on the macroeconomic indicators of the country and regions. The strategic areas of activities of the Ministry of Emergency Situations until 2030 are: to take a set of measures to reduce the risks of emergency situations and minimize their consequences; to increase the economic efficiency of the use of budget funds allocated for solving problems to ensure the safety of citizens of the country and its territories. Preventing emergency situations is of particular importance for the Bryansk region due to its geographical, sectoral and environmental specifics. The region is a bordering territory and the most affected region of the country following the Chernobyl accident. The most severe economic and socio-psychological consequences of the accident have not yet been overcome. The Bryansk region has formed and effectively operates an economic mechanism for preventing emergencies. Applying a risk-based approach, such mechanism allows us to carry out preventive activities, forecast emergencies, take account of their sources, ensure the sustainable functioning of industrial and social facilities, and create favorable conditions for entrepreneurial and innovative activity.

Keywords: safety, emergency situations (EMERCOM), risk reduction, protection of the population and territories, risk-oriented approach, efficiency.


Case-law Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights on the Protection of the Right to Fair Wages

Author(s): V. A. Maltsev

Annotation: The author in his article examines the main aspects of the content of the right to a fair pay as one of the fundamental human rights. The author analyzes the provisions of universal and regional international treaties that reveal the concept and content of the right to a fair pay. The author notes that although this right is not mentioned in the European Convention for the Protection of Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, but the approval of Protocol No. 1 thereto guarantees everyone the unhindered use of their property, and wages are one of the objects of their property. At the same time, the author highlights some problems related to the content and criteria of the right to fair wages, and points out that there are different approaches to the concept of fair wages in European and Russian legal science, since in Europe, this concept is mostly identified as decent wages and fair remuneration for work. The author draws attention the fact that the term fair wages is not explained in the Russian legislation as well, although the term has a constitutional basis and is one of the principles of labor law. In addition, the author analyzes in detail some case-law decisions of the European Court of Human Rights on various issues related to violations of the right to fair wages.

Keywords: wages, principle of equity, case-law decisions, balance of parties, trade unions, compensation, responsibility.


The Problem of Implementing the General Agreement through the System of Collective Agreements and Union Contracts

Author(s): M. A. Malyshev

Annotation: The article concerns the problem of implementing the provisions of the General Agreement as between three parties: the Government of the Russian Federation, the trade unions and the employers associations. The article is based on the results of a survey of respondents at their place of work and study. In the course of analyzing the empirical material obtained, the author notes that trade union organizations have accumulated positive experience in the field of social partnership. However, there are an inconsistency of positions between different structural levels of social partnership and duplication of functions of social partners. The implementation of specific provisions of the agreement is often predetermined by industry and territorial specifics. Wage regulation remains a significant challenge. The author pays attention to the fact that in the agreement as between the three parties, there are in fact no mechanisms for the formation of wage funds. The author concludes that almost thirty-year experience of the institution of trilateral relations shows that the dialogue of the three parties turns into a monologue or a free discussion with representatives of the authorities in a reduced composition. Therefore, common workers treat the trade union as an advisory club, whose opinion can be ignored. In the end, the author puts forward a number of proposals for the organization of effective cooperation between the parties to the agreement.

Keywords: General Agreement, negotiations, trade union, leaders, social sphere, social partnership, social dialogue.


INTRODUCTION OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY TO INCREASE THE AVAILABILITY OF ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

Author(s): A. Kh. Lukmanov

Annotation: The author in his article interprets the concepts of digital energy and digitalization of energy. The authors interpretation determines the essence of the processes behind these concepts. The issue of introducing digital technologies in the energy sector, in the context of digitalization of various sectors of the economy, is of keen interest to researchers and scientists. According to leading experts in the field of energy, today there is an active process of displacement of transactions that require human participation and are ineffective, from the social and economic spheres of life. The introduction of digital platforms in any industry contributes to a significant reduction in transaction costs, along with the acceleration of the operating cycle. In the energy industry, reducing transaction costs is also possible with the transition to digital technologies. Determining the scenario for the development of the digital future of energy using virtual reality and considering ways to speed up digital transformations are widely discussed in Russia and abroad. The author studies the development of the energy industry on the basis of data provided by experts of DNV GL, the worlds leading consulting company in the field of renewable energy sources and energy management, and provides his vision of the consequences of the introduction of digital technologies in the energy sector in order to increase the availability of energy infrastructure. The author concludes that the introduction of digital technologies in the energy industry is a process of digital transformation of energy infrastructure using data collection and analysis to improve the efficiency of the energy complex and meet consumer demand. This process is aimed at creating a single information space for the sectors of Russias fuel and energy complex with the possibility of digital management of the energy sector and providing services in a digital format to consumers of energy resources.

Keywords: digital energy, smart technologies, energy saving, distributed generation, energy infrastructure.


The Influence of Imperfect Competition in Social and Labor Relations on the Reproduction of the Labor-Power

Author(s): A. S. Makekadyrova, S. V. Kravtsevich

Annotation: The authors in their article consider the causal effect of imperfect competition in social and labor relations on the reproduction of the labor-power. The authors scientifically substantiate the influence of imperfect competition in social and labor relations on the increasing gap between the price of labor and the use value of labor reproduction in the domestic labor market. The authors reveal a major problem of labor reproduction in the domestic labor market, which problem reflects the influence of imperfect competition in social and labor relations on the increasing gap between the price of labor and the use value of labor reproduction, and propose a conceptual approach to its solution. The authors consider some negative socio-economic phenomena of the labor market caused by imperfect competition in social and labor relations, and establish a mechanism influencing on social and labor relations and revealing the subject approaches to the analysis of its essence. The authors systematize the factors of the influence of imperfect competition on the reproduction of the labor-power in the labor market. The authors identify some problems of the quality of labor reproduction in the domestic labor market, and propose a conceptual approach to solving the problem of labor reproduction in the domestic labor market. The authors finally determine some ways of increasing the competitiveness of the employee in the domestic labor market.

Keywords: imperfect competition in social and labor relations, reproduction of the labor-power, employee competitiveness, labor force quality.


CONTRADICTIONS OF CREATIVE LABOR IN THE CONDITIONS OF LATE CAPITALISM

Author(s): A. V. Buzgalin

Annotation: The author in his article demonstrates that in modern conditions, the progress of the creative content of labor is a basis for the transformation of technologies. This, in turn, determines the need and possibility of changing socio-economic relations and institutions of late capitalism. Late capitalism is defined as a stage of development of bourgeois society. At this stage, further progress of this system is possible only through the development of transitional relations within its depths, including the sprouts of post-capitalist socio-economic organization. The author characterizes creative activity as a subject-subject dialogue, in which cultural values are created in the process of co-creation, which values are a potential object of unlimited use by each member of society. The author highlights that the progress of creative activity, on the one hand, creates opportunities for expanding the scope of public goods (in education, health care, etc.), which can be used as the property of everyone and without restrictions. On the other hand, the progress of creative activity is associated with restrictions that are created by intellectual private property and subordination to the market and capital of the creative worker. This conflict can be resolved by way of reforms at the least, and, at the maximum, by revolutionary changing the existing system and advancing along the path of social progress.

Keywords: creative work, creative worker, market, capital, intellectual private property, public goods.


PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE GENDER DIMENSION: INDICATORS OF EU COUNTRIES

Author(s): V. O. Brostrem, P. I. Ananchenkova

Annotation: Gender inequality has been the subject of research by scientists for more than a decade, but despite political statements and state-level laws and programs, it still remains a fact of social and labor relations manifested primarily in relation to women. In the modern labor market, men enjoy higher rates of employment, more actively participate in business activities and occupy blue-chip positions, while women are more vulnerable in terms of unemployment, access to jobs, job promotion, etc. This article provides an overview of the theoretical provisions concerning the understanding of gender inequality in the field of social and labor relations, as well as some statistical data on the countries of the European Union (EU), reflecting the features of educational policy in the context of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The authors analyze the level of employment of young people (aged 20-34) who have completed school and post-school vocational education (in accordance with the methodology of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)). The authors provide information on the transition from education to work and analyze the access to the labor market of recent graduates (those who completed their education in the last three years) in the European Union countries. The authors note that education is of great importance for the reproduction of a highly qualified and productive labor force and generally has a positive impact on the economy. Therefore, modern global educational trends reflect widespread initiatives for the ongoing learning new skills (re-skilling), professional development, ensuring equality and accessibility of education, and national education systems build a development strategy in close correlation with the projected needs of the labor market.

Keywords: gender inequality, education, employment, European Union, labor activity, re-skilling


FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF PLACEMENT OF ORDERS FOR DELIVERIES OF GOODS, PERFORMANCE OF WORKS, RENDERING OF SERVICES FOR NEEDS OF CUSTOMS BODIES

Author(s): Tonkonog V.V. , Arestova Y.A.

Annotation: Activities in the field of customs Affairs are strategically important for the economy of the Russian Federation, as they are designed to stimulate foreign trade activities, promote the development of the national economy and ensure the economic security of the state. Customs payments collected during the movement of goods across the customs border have a significant share in the revenue part of the budget of the Russian Federation, which also indicates the importance of the activities of customs authorities. The customs authorities of the Russian Federation are one of the key subjects of customs activity. In order for the customs authorities to carry out their activities most effectively, to implement the tasks and functions assigned to them, they need timely and sufficient satisfaction of their needs, for example, providing material and technical means, equipping customs infrastructure facilities with them, providing officials, their family members and pensioners with social and medical insurance. The article considers the organization of activities aimed at logistics, namely the activities of the Main logistics Department of the Federal customs service. It is determined that the state of the rear service practically determines the development of customs infrastructure, material and technical equipment and life support of its facilities, the level of social and medical support for officials, their family members and pensioners of customs authorities. In addition, the tasks of long-term development and requirements for the state of the rear service adequately reflect the strategic goals of improving the efficiency of the entire service. At present, these tasks of the rear service are still not fully implemented, and sometimes they become even more urgent. The article also discusses the features of the organization of placing orders for the supply of goods, performance of works, provision of services for the needs of customs authorities. The analysis carried out in the article allowed us to conclude that in order to increase the efficiency of activities aimed at organizing the logistics support of the customs authorities of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to identify the main problems of this system and develop directions for its improvement.

Keywords: logistics, public procurement, planning system, logistics, customs authorities, organization of placing orders, delivery of goods.


INNOVATION MANAGEMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL TRAJECTORY OF THE STUDENT DURING THE COVID-19

Author(s): Lipai T.P., Minasyan S.M., Gevorgyan M.R.

Annotation: Currently, almost all higher education systems have switched to distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has changed our way of life and the way we work, and these changes have significantly influenced our future. Higher educational institutions are trying to understand and study how approaches, criteria, technologies, trajectories, students' consciousness are changing and how to manage them in the future. Today, it is the instant response to what is happening in distance learning that is of great importance, since the participants in the educational space are forced to quickly function in the resulting distance environment and at the same time cope with the difficulties they face in everyday life. To this end, it is necessary to create an environment of trust in obtaining a good modern education in higher educational institutions. In the current paper, the authors draw attention to the fact that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the acceleration of processes is felt and creates a close interaction between man and technology in the transition to digital methods of work. Uncertainty about digital skills can lead to perceived / experienced stigma.

Keywords: social processes, social institutions, innovation management, COVID-19, educational trajectory, stigmatization, management, education quality assurance.


THE PROBLEMS OF ACCOUNTING FOR RISKS IN THE COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES OF A MARINE BROKERAGE COMPANY UNDER FLEET SUBCHARTERING

Author(s): Golovan T.V.

Annotation: The nature of international trade, an important and integral element of which is the movement of goods from the seller to the buyer by sea, predetermines the need for intermediaries, without whom it is practically impossible to carry out the complex process of sea transportation of goods. All types of intermediary operations are very widespread in modern international trade and have a steady growth trend. The reasons for the widespread use of intermediaries in the international carriage of goods by sea are different. For example, there are especially risky regions, the so-called risky business regions, where the implementation of commercial activities by foreign companies is not only difficult, but often dangerous. Also, some commodity markets can be completely monopolized by intermediaries and, therefore, are simply not available for establishing direct contacts. The specifics of freight operations, their complexity, the need for a large volume of special knowledge, comprehensive and complete awareness of the situation on the global freight market - all this contributed to the creation of a strong position for marine brokerage companies, which they continue to maintain at the present time. The activities of companies, including marine brokerage companies, in all its aspects and spheres of operation are associated with a fairly wide variety of risks, the versatility of their essence and a variety of sources of their occurrence. In this regard, taking into account all the possible risks presented in this article and managing them becomes a priority area of activity for every marine brokerage company planning its further presence in the market, especially as a Charterer for time charter.

Keywords: sea transport, marine brokerage company, world freight market, chartering, risk, brokerage commission, Charterer, time charter, commercial risk, variety of risks.


STATE ACCREDITATION OF INSTITUTES OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT OF GRADUATES: INTERACTION PROBLEMS

Author(s): Dr. Marie Paz H. Angeles, E. N. Bosova, N. L. Vorontsova

Annotation: The authors in their article examine the relationship between the state accreditation of an institute of higher education and employment of graduates aiming to determine how much state accreditation of such institute affects the demand for graduates on the labor market. The authors consider the foreign approach to the accreditation of educational programs in the context of the problem of the quality of training and employment of graduates. The authors analyze the Russian approach to the interaction of training and practice, and characterize the socio-legal aspects of the state accreditation. The methods used in the study reveal some problems related to the search for an effective model of interaction between training and practice, university graduates and employers, universities and the professional community, and suggest some ways to solve them. The legislative principle of state-public character of education management is a legal basis for further development of cooperation between the state and other communities. The existing practice of implementing this principle indicates that the professional community is reluctant to the process of training qualified human resources. It will be necessary to determine an optimal model for assessing the quality of education and the role of the professional community in such assessment. However, this will not be enough if the universities themselves do not constantly improve the educational process by interacting with employers.

Keywords: state accreditation, graduate, education, student, employment, employer, professional standard.


Issue #6 of year 2020

SPECIFIC FEATURES OF USING INTERNATIONAL LEASING AGREEMENTS WHEN IMPORTING FOREIGN GOODS TO THE TERRITORY OF THE EEU

Author(s): Timchenko T.N., Golovan T.V.

Annotation: Intense competition in the world market, the discrepancy between national legislation, methods of calculating taxation create difficulties for the development of international leasing. In many respects, the settlement of the above-described difficulties depends on the quality study of this specificity by the customs authorities. The complexities and main problems of the international leasing market in most cases arise precisely when the leased items actually cross the customs border of the state. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the problematic issues of crossing the EEU border by leased items. To date, there are several rather controversial and controversial points that require any changes to their structure. In connection with the above, the purpose of the work was to study the content of international leasing, structured consideration of its main components, as well as topical problems associated with the leasing market and customs authorities. In accordance with the set goal, the paper considers the essence of international leasing; leasing items moved across the customs border of the EEU have been identified; the procedure for moving leased items across the EEU border was investigated; identified and analyzed the problematic aspects associated with crossing the customs border with leased items.

Keywords: leased items, crossing the customs border of the EEU, determining the customs value, problematic aspects


Methods and Tools for Supervision of the Infrastructure of the Securities Market in the Russian Federation

Author(s): S. E. Stepanov

Annotation: The article deals with the problems of supervision of the infrastructure of the Russian securities market. The author outlines the elements of this infrastructure, and reveals the purpose of each of them. The author notes that one of the most important elements of the infrastructure is the Central Counterparty, which has a wide range of functions, responsibilities and capabilities. The author pays special attention to the problem of supervision of the Bank of Russia over the activities of professional participants in the securities market. The author analyzes the Banks methods and tools focused on high-quality and effective supervision. The author considers the principle of proportional regulation, which makes the Central Banks methods and tools of supervision dependent on the level of risk for the stable development of the securities market and the economy as a whole. The author formulates the criteria for determining the need for contact supervision, as well as for increasing the level of remote supervision, and describes some elements of reducing the burden on the watchdog organizations. The author outlines the key features of increasing the number of clients of brokerage and depository companies, and defines the principles of risk-based and proportional approach to supervision. The author identifies the criteria for dividing the watchdog organizations that are part of the securities market infrastructure by categories, and finally demonstrates the purpose and functions of elements of the securities market infrastructure.

Keywords: regulation, Bank of Russia, securities market infrastructure, supervision methods, key rate


FEATURES OF THE MOVEMENT OF SHIPS SUPPLIES ACROSS THE CUSTOMS BORDER OF EEU

Author(s): Pogarskaya A.S., Konfino K. V.

Annotation: The relevance of this work is due to the fact that the movement of ship supplies and the procedure for their customs clearance have specific features along with other categories of goods. In addition, due to the convenience of Russian ports for bunkering operations due to loyal fuel prices, in comparison with foreign ports, the process of replenishing ship stocks is often associated with the desire of unscrupulous foreign economic activity participants to commercialize supplies abroad, which contradicts the concept of ship supplies. For this purpose, the article discusses the concept and categories of supplies, the main features that allow identifying goods as supplies, as well as the procedure for their customs clearance.

Keywords: ship supplies, customs control, customs declaration, coaling


THE HISTORY OF ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LIGHT OF THE PROBLEMS OF INCREASING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY SAVING

Author(s): A. Kh. Lukmanov

Annotation: In his article, the author examines the history of energy development and the process of transformation of global energy from centralized generation to more dispersed generation, which process is currently observed worldwide. The history of energy in light of the problems of increasing energy efficiency and energy saving and the path of its development to the present state are extremely important and provoke heightened interest for understanding its role in the development of civilization. Distributed generation has been actively developing in many countries over the past decade. According to some experts, energy demand is likely to double by 2050 as compared to 2000. At the same time, there is a global problem of climate change caused by adverse factors of human impact on the environment. The issues discussed in the article are important today because solving the problem of increasing energy efficiency and energy saving will lead to a radical transformation of the global energy system and the use of new energy sources. The scale of the global energy system is huge, and the demand for energy is growing so rapidly that the search for an optimal solution to the issues of increasing energy resources requires joint efforts of the entire world community. The article discusses the main trends in the development of energy in modern conditions.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, energy saving, distributed generation, economic interest


INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

Author(s): K. H. Kyazimov

Annotation: The author in his article shows that in the system of professional education, there is a tendency to increase the role of innovative technologies in order to improve the quality of training of graduates. In the context of globalization, the requirements for professional training of graduates of higher education institutions and institutions of professional education are increasing. The development of innovation economy depends largely on the improvement of professional education and training. Therefore, it is important to use in educational process of universities and professional education institutions innovative educational technologies, among which interactive technologies, project-based learning technologies and digital educational technologies are the most widespread. The main feature of innovative technologies of professional training is that they provide the formation of professional competencies of students in a non-traditional format, while preserving the content and quality of training. The Russian national education system, which has embarked on the path of digitalization and modernization, is faced with the need to develop not only technological support, but also to review the methodological and didactic skills of teachers, and to be able to conduct teaching activities in new technological conditions. The article deals with the main issues of software for the modernization of Russian education and the introduction of innovative training technologies in the process of training highly qualified personnel.

Keywords: education, training, innovative technologies, interactive technologies, educational environment, globalization, digitalization


TRENDS AND PROBLEMS OF THE DIGITAL FUTURE HIGHER EDUCATION

Author(s): Krylova Lyubov V., Prudnikova Anna A., Sergeeva Natalya V.

Annotation: The systematic emergence of new technologies, accompanied by an increase in the amount of information necessary to maintain the professional competence of specialists at an adequate level, imposes different requirements on the system of organization of higher education, teaching methodologies, professional characteristics of lecturers, knowledge and skills of students. The study of the problems of adaptation of higher education to the requirements of the digital economy, carried out by the authors, made it possible to formulate the following conclusions. Knowledge with a long half-life is fundamental and is the basis for the renewal of many types of knowledge with a short half-life. Fundamental knowledge can be obtained mainly within the framework of basic university education, which provides integral, interrelated, methodologically verified knowledge in the chosen specialty. In the future, the necessary competencies with a short half-life can be developed and updated in the Lifelong learning mode remotely on open modular online courses. The article formulates the problems and outlines the priorities in the development of higher education. The main problems to be solved in order to maintain the adequacy of higher education in the modern digital world are: rapid obsolescence of knowledge and skills required for specialists in specific professions; the decline in the role of basic theoretical disciplines in favor of applied courses; complication of the conditions for conducting professional activities in an environment with constantly updated parameters; the disappearance of old and the emergence of new professions and types of activity, including in interdisciplinary fields; the contradiction between the conservative nature of long-term vocational training in higher education and the speed of changes in the requirements for the professional qualities of graduates; the lag of professional and digital competencies of teachers from modern, rapidly changing needs. As a result, the main priorities for the development of higher education were identified: fundamentalization and individualization of higher education, the development of problem-based learning; the relationship between training and business practices; expansion of digital competencies of all participants in the process.

Keywords: higher education, distance learning, digital economy, obsolescence of knowledge, competencies


USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE LOGISTICS RISKS OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT DEALERS

Author(s): L. S. Iskhakova

Annotation: In her article, the author deals with the risks of medical equipment dealers and offers a tool for minimizing the risks of supplying medical equipment and materials. The author draws attention to the fact that one of the most important and unpredictable risks for suppliers of medical equipment and consumables is the logistics risk. The author notes that the logistics risk management should be considered as a purposeful process of influence of the logistics subject on the possibility of danger in the operation of links in the logistics chain using special methods and tools. In this regard, the author describes the key aspects of managing this process, and proposes some measures to minimize the risk. The author emphasizes that despite strict regulation and financial pressure on the industry, the market of medical equipment dealers continues to grow worldwide, and those who are engaged in this field have managed to achieve significant success. But as supplies increase, the number of risks increases too. In addition, the author justifies the choice of the simplest algorithm of actions in the market of medical equipment supplies that is adequate to the tasks set. The author finally analyzes the results of using the software products developed in the educational process.

Keywords: medical equipment, violation of delivery terms, logistics risks, ways to minimize, innovation


SUBSIDISED REGIONS IN MODERN REALITIES

Author(s): D. B. Iskiyaev

Annotation: The reform of the modern Russian economy actualizes the problem of financial support for executive authorities in order to manage the socio-economic development of jurisdictional territories. Geographical, resource, historical, political and economic differences make it necessary to classify the territories of the Russian Federation in accordance with certain characteristics, one of which is the sources of regional budget revenues. For some regions, given limited tax revenues, Russian budget subsidies act as the main financial source of the regional budget, which is not only necessary, but also justified on a national scale. However, despite the measures taken by the state, the system of management of subsidized regions does not at the moment provide an effective solution to the necessary tasks of socio-economic development of territories. The author analyzes the dynamics of the number of subsidized regions and the scale of subsidies in the Russian Federation for 2002-2019. The author identifies the reasons for the lack of positive trends and attempts to determine the main directions for improving the efficiency of the model of inter-budgetary relations and reducing the level of subsidization of the regions of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: subsidization, subsidized region, socio-economic development of the region, consolidated budget, inter-budgetary relations, leveling of budget security of the territories of the Russian Federation


FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF A COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION'S ACTIVITIES BASED ON IFRS STATEMENTS

Author(s): A. O. Zagarey , A. A. Ivlev

Annotation: The article is devoted to the problems of financial analysis of the activity of the reporting entity formed according to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The article states that the analysis of the financial statements of an economic entity starts with the definition of the principles underlying the so-called coefficients. In this regard, the authors consider the legal, social and economic factors that influenced the formation of national characteristics embodied in the reporting standards meant for organizations in the Russian Federation. The authors identify some discrepancies in domestic and international financial reporting standards, and draw attention to the fact that there are deep contradictions between them. This directly affects the results of financial analysis, violates the principle of reliability and accuracy of the analysis results, and does not allow the management of this or that domestic company to take necessary management decisions. Meanwhile, IFRS allow you to make a much more realistic valuation of the amount of capital, liabilities, assets, expenses, income and net profit, and contribute to improving the quality of information about the economic condition and financial results of company activities. In the end, the authors conclude that domestic companies should use IFRS as frequently as possible in order to meet the global trend of economic development.

Keywords: risk management, financial management, accounting and reporting, audits, IFRS, RAS, financial analysis


POSSIBLE AREAS OF ACTIVITY HOW TO ATTRACT APPLICANTS TO HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS (BY THE EXAMPLE OF THE ACADEMY OF LABOR AND SOCIAL RELATIONS)

Author(s): T. V. Divina, I. I. Kovalev

Annotation: The educational services market is currently highly competitive. There are many different institutes, academies and universities that train students in various fields of study. But it is worth noting that without proper use of modern marketing tools, an educational institution can easily get lost among its competitors and face the problem of attracting applicants. One of the most important modern marketing tools is the promotion of an educational organization and its services in social networks. The authors in their article present a certain set of measures for organizing the promotion of an educational institution in social networks. These measures are considered by the example of trade unions institute of higher education Academy of labor and social relations. The analysis carried out by the authors showed the urgent need and high efficiency of using social networks by educational organizations to attract applicants and increase their brand awareness. Proactive cooperation with the target audience, determining preferences, likes and dislikes is extremely important and necessary for modern educational organizations. It should be noted that this information will help determine the most effective approach to potential consumers of educational services.

Keywords: social media, social networks, promotion of a university, educational services, target audience


Freelancing as a New Type of Employment for Women with Children in a Digitalized Society

Author(s): A.V. Gizatullina, N. S. Zimova

Annotation: The article deals with freelancing as a new type of employment for women with children in the context of the formation of a digital society. The authors analyze the current situation of working mothers in the labor market. At the same time, the authors draw attention to the fact that many of them have minor children, which causes the problem of combining work and home activities. Therefore, for many of such mothers, the choice of such form of employment as freelance is appropriate. Freelancing makes it possible for such mothers to have a convenient work schedule, realize their creative potential, earn additional income, and work from home. The authors also consider the reasons for the development of the self-employment market combining them into four blocks: technology development, changing employer needs, changing employee needs and the crisis. The authors outline the main activities of freelancers. Moreover, along with the positive aspects of this new form of employment, the authors reveal some significant problems such as an unpredictable amount of income, high competition, technical difficulties, and difficulties in allocating time between family and work. In conclusion, the authors consider the prospects of freelancing as a new form of employment for women with children.

Keywords: freelance, self-employment, women with children, labor market, labor relations, labor force, digital society


THE FORMATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PROMISING METHODS FOR MANAGING THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATION CULTURE

Author(s): A. V. Gavrilyuk

Annotation: The author in his article reveals the sociological content of innovation culture, and determines the role of innovations in the socio-economic development of society, expressed in the formation of high-tech industries, improving the standard of living of the population, reducing employment problems, and mitigating social contradictions. The author understands the management of the development of innovation culture as the management of the social sphere, corporate structure when creating innovation. The author notes that in order to stimulate and support innovation activity, the personal interest of top management and the involvement of staff in the implementation of research, development and technological work is required. The author also considers the role of emotional intelligence as the most important factor that should be taken into account when choosing the methods for managing the development of innovation culture. The author describes the specifics of forming and implementing promising methods for managing the development of innovation culture, which methods provide for the flexibility and competitive advantages companies need to survive in a complex and changing business environment. The author reveals the essence of methods for managing the development of innovation culture aimed at achieving the companys innovative goals based on the effective use of labor, intellectual, informational, organizational, material, technical and financial resources.

Keywords: innovation, culture of innovation, management methods, human capital, human personality, emotional intelligence


NON-PROFIT ACTIVITIES OF CORPORATIONS: SHOULD BUSINESSES SOLVE SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN THE REGIONS WHERE THEY OPERATE?

Author(s): E. V. Vashalomidze, I. A. Chalenko

Annotation: The socio-economic space that forms the landscape of modern business makes it necessary to develop it in close connection with the community, which inevitably acts as an important factor in the external and internal environment. The development of the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR), within the framework of theoretical scientific designs and applied corporate practices, constantly keeps up a dispute between supporters and opponents of CSR. The subject of such dispute is the answer to the following question: Should businesses participate in solving the social problems in the region where they operate or not? The authors in their article deal with the theoretical aspects of the development of ideas about the nature and forms of corporate social responsibility, as well as the experience of Russian businesses in the implementation of social programs in the regions where they operate. The authors conclude that both in the world and in Russia there is an increase in corporate socially oriented initiatives that are not related to the companys business activities, but are part of its mission, ideology and strategy. As part of the socio-economic system of their region of operation, corporations de facto participate in solving social problems, while producing a stable positive image and providing intangible conditions for sustainable development.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), local community, region of operation, social problems, socially oriented practice


NATIONAL PRIORITY IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF RUSSIAN CITIZENS IN THE NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Author(s): V. N. Bobkov, E. A. Chernykh, E. V. Odintsova, A. A. Gulyugina

Annotation: This article is devoted to the consideration of the implementation of the national priority "Improving the Quality of Life of Russian Citizens" in the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation. The authors analyze the level and dynamics of employment, real disposable cash income of the population, poverty and inequality in the property status, as well as the effectiveness of social support for low-income families with children. To assess the state of the national security, the authors propose a number of new indicators characterizing these areas of quality of life. The authors reveal and substantiate the values of indicators included in the risk zone for the national security of the country. The authors show that such indicators are a wide scale of unstable (precarious) employment, the level of purchasing power of the population, high level of property inequalities manifested in the concentration of property (income, housing, and other property assets (wealth)) in the high-income strata of Russian citizens. The authors propose a solution to overcome absolute monetary poverty in low-income families with children, namely to fix by law a minimum per capita income for such families not lower than a guaranteed per capita income in the amount of a regional subsistence minimum differentiated by types of families. The authors pay attention to the deterioration in the level and dynamics of the analyzed indicators of the quality of life of Russian citizens caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, and provide a short-term predictive assessment of their condition. The results of the study conducted are aimed at attracting the attention of state authorities and the public to the implementation of the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation and the introduction of a number of new indicators to assess the quality of life of the population in the face of new challenges and threats.

Keywords: national priority, quality of life, employment, unemployment, unstable (precarious) employment, monetary income, inequality


YOUNG AND OLDER WORKERS IN THE POST-INDUSTRIAL LABOR MARKET: CONFRONTATION OR COMPLEMENTARITY?

Author(s): S. A. Barkov, E. G. Ksenofontova

Annotation: The article is devoted to the paradox of a specialists social time that has appeared in post-industrial society. On the one hand, a persons knowledge is becoming increasingly outdated (in such case, the duration of the working life should be shorter). On the other hand, the working life is getting longer. Here, the question arises about the effectiveness of work in the context of this paradox, when the demographic, economic and social conditions of the labor market have changed significantly, but peoples world view and their idea of success in life have largely remained the same. The authors consider three approaches to solving this paradox: ideological, educational, and managerial. The first one is related to changing ideas about the conventionally approved time of self-realization. The second one is related to solving the problem of obsolescence of knowledge, and therefore, the need for constant retraining and development of personnel, and permanent replenishment and updating of each persons knowledge. The authors pay special attention to the third (managerial) approach. It implies the transformation of social and managerial mechanisms, and differentiation of forms of work organization. In addition, the authors analyze methods for solving the above paradox, such as outsourcing, temporary contracts contemplating a team labor organization, mentoring, flexible working hours, remote and part-time employment.

Keywords: intergenerational conflicts, young employees, over-age employees, outsourcing, flexible working hours, remote employment


STUDY OF PROBLEMATIC ASPECTS OF IMPORT OF SANCTIONED GOODS TO THE TERRITORY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Author(s): Arestova Y.A., Tonkonog V.V.

Annotation: To date, the Federal customs service of Russia is taking all possible measures aimed at improving the effectiveness of its work to ensure compliance with prohibitions. This is due to an increase in attempts to import sanctioned goods in the context of the extension of the sanctions imposed by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation "On the application of certain special economic measures to ensure the security of the Russian Federation". Based on the above, the article studies the problem of import of sanctioned goods to the Russian Federation, identified and described as "grey" schemes of delivery to Russia of this category of goods, the performed analysis of the existing liability for violation of the prohibition on the importation of goods into the territory of the Russian Federation, researched legal justification for the functioning of mobile groups of the customs authorities of the Russian Federation and the reasons for their formation, the analysis of the results of practical activities of the mobile groups to identify areas of improvement, outline directions of further development of activities of the mobile teams of the customs authorities of the Russian Federation, as a tool in the fight against the import of sanctioned goods to Russia.

Keywords: prohibited goods, sanctioned goods, customs control after the release of goods, mobile groups of the Federal customs service of the Russian Federation, interdepartmental interaction, administrative responsibility


THE DEVELOPMENT OF FINANCIAL CONSULTING IN THE ERA OF FINANCIAL DIGITALIZATION

Author(s): R. R. Abdurakhmanova

Annotation: The author in her article considers the basics of financial consulting development in the era of financial digitalization. Financial consulting is an activity aimed at providing services to individuals and legal entities, as well as individual entrepreneurs in relation to financial and tax instruments and transactions through financial consulting. Based on the historical analysis of the development of financial consulting in the world and Russia, the author concludes that Russian financial consulting lags behind the developed countries by almost a century. The author also reveals that Russias share in the global market of consulting services is less than 0.5%, while the USA owns 44.5%. The author shows that the development of financial consulting was inextricably linked with the development of financial digitalization. For example, the transition from the third industrial revolution to the fourth one not only led to the emergence of IT consulting, but also to the change of the main business models by large foreign consulting companies. The author highlights the main risks that hinder both the development of the digital economy and financial consulting in Russia. The author asserts that it is necessary to pass a uniform law that would regulate financial consulting, and that Russian consulting companies should use a risk-based approach as an essential element of increasing the level of efficiency of financial consulting, as well as possibly enter new markets and increase their competitive advantages.

Keywords: financial consulting, financial digitalization, financial consultant, financial consulting market, risks of digitalization


Issue #5 of year 2020

Regarding the Implementation of Trade Unions Interests in Amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation

Author(s): P. Ya. Feldman

Annotation: In his article, the author tried to determine whether the constitutional amendments approved at the all-Russian vote on July 1, 2020 comply with the interests of employees and trade unions. To achieve this goal, the author applied an institutional approach combined with a set of empirical methods that provide monitoring of socio-political processes. Based on his research, the author concluded that during the development and approval of amendments to the Basic law of the Russian Federation, trade unions had proven to be one of the most proactive subjects. Most of their proposals aimed at raising the states obligations to citizens were implemented. As a result, the updated Russian Constitution has become more socially and conservatively oriented. The patriotic ideologies proclaimed in the Russian Constitution largely correspond to the moral and value cues of working people. The said circumstances allowed the Federation of Independent Trade Unions to openly support the amendments, which directly affected the results of the nation-wide vote. The author of the article believes that the updated version of the social compact contains political and legal prerequisites for the development of social partnership institutions and the preservation of trade unions privileged right to represent the interests of employees in relations with employers and the state.

Keywords: The Constitution of the Russian Federation, amendments to the Constitution, trade unions, interest groups, social partnership, neocorporatism, civil society


CHANGING THE ROLE OF GOLD IN THE ACCUMULATION OF WORLD OFFICIAL RESERVES

Author(s): L. I. Fadeeva

Annotation: The article concerns the topical issue of de-dollarization of countries official international reserves in the XXI century, in particular, the increasing interest of central banks of the world to official reserves in the form of monetary gold. The author provides an overview of the development of this process in retrospect. Using cross-country data and statistical material from the Russian Federation, the author considers the latest trends in this field that have emerged in recent years. The author notes that for a number of years, we have seen in the Russian Federation a uniform increase in the total amount of purchased monetary gold in comparison with foreign countries. Having analyzed the statistics of the US Treasury on foreign portfolio investments in its liabilities, the author concludes that interest in US Treasury bonds as a reserve asset has declined in the world at large. However, the activation of the transition of central banks to reservation mainly in the form of gold to the detriment of reservation in the form of foreign currencies occurs only in certain countries. In Russia, such a change in the concept of accumulating reserves occurred in 2008. In the first half of 2020, due to the rise in the price of gold, the value of Russia's gold reserves and their share in its international reserves continued to grow, despite the suspension of growth in their physical volume.

Keywords: De-dollarization, international reserves, gold and foreign exchange reserves of the Central Bank, world official reserves, monetary gold, gold reserves, currencies


AFTER THE COVID A WORLD TO REINVENT

Author(s): Hubert Landier

Annotation: It has now become clear to the scientific community that the techno-industrial mode of development is not compatible with the conditions for the survival of humanity. Beyond measures of dubious effectiveness initially intended, by public authorities and large companies, to mislead public opinion, it is the mode of reasoning on which the world of today is based that needs to be abandoned. The crisis caused by the Covid 19 pandemic can thus be seen as a possible fork in the road for humanity, whose survival is at stake. Perhaps, at least provisionally, there will be a return to the status quo ante. Perhaps this crisis will also lead to even more dramatic crises, and perhaps even to a period of global chaos beyond which a new cultural paradigm will be imposed that will no longer be identified with the certainties of the West that brought us to where we are today. The future is unpredictable because it will result from the confrontation between the dominant powers and the bearers of renewal. A confrontation with an uncertain outcome.

Keywords: Covid 19, techno-industrial development, disaster, collapse, paradigm shift


TRADE UNIONS AS A KEY DRIVER OF MODERNIZATION OF THE INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE SPHERE OF SMALL BUSINESS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC

Author(s): V. N. Skvortsov

Annotation: The author in his article analyzes the complex and tense economic situation in the sphere of small business in Russia due to the epidemic of the COVID-19 virus. The author asserts that it is necessary to develop social partnership in order to solve economic, social and labor problems that have become even more acute amidst the coronavirus pandemic. The author identifies and systematizes the key problems that hinder the development of the social partnership system in the field of small business, as well as defines priority areas for overcoming existing contradictions, developing social partnership and increasing the role and importance of trade unions in the process of modernizing the institute of social partnership in the regulation of social and labor relations at small enterprises. The author focuses on the need to develop the basic provisions of the social partnership system and puts forward some proposals for the development of small businesses, which are so necessary for the revival of their business activity and the release of financial and other resources for the development of social and labor relations and in order for small businesses to get out of the crisis. The author suggests some ways to create a mechanism for protecting the interests of employees of small enterprises. The author finally frames some recommendations to state structures, the government and employers on the need for social dialogue and the development of social partnership to solve the countrys economic, social and labor problems.

Keywords: small business, small enterprises (SEs), trade union movement, social partnership, social and labor relations, trade union organization, labor legislation


REDUCING THE RATE OF SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS: A TOOL TO SUPPORT ECONOMIC GROWTH OR A DETERRENT TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT?

Author(s): A. L. Safonov, K. V. Ugodnikov

Annotation: The article deals with how the reduction of insurance premium rates for certain industries and representatives of small and medium-sized businesses affects the financial stability of the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation. In this regard, the authors anylized the financial statements of the Pension Fund, as well as the provisions of its draft budget for 2021 and for the period of 2021 through 2022. Based on statistical data from the Federal State Statistics Service, the authors calculated the annual deficit of the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation for the payment of pensions. In addition, the authors described the key theoretical features of the definition of the concept pension and benefit, and indicated that the concept of pension was interpreted as a deferred part of wages by an employee. At the same time, the authors emphasized that this interpretation was equally valid for both accumulative and solidary pension schemes. The authors finally concluded that in order to support economic growth, the Government of the Russian Federation should change its approach to the social security system in general and pension insurance in particular. In Russia, there is a vital need to radically separate the pension system from all other measures of social support for the population.

Keywords: pension, benefit, insurance deficit of the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation, socially acceptable level of pension payments, tax policy, coronavirus pandemic


THE PROBLEM OF DEFINING THE CONCEPTS OF PERSONNEL COMPETITIVENESS AND HUMAN CAPITAL

Author(s): A. S. Kosikhin

Annotation: The article deals with the wording of the most complete and precise definition of the concept personnel competitiveness and human capital. These concepts are extremely common in the literature on management, but they are used in the context of a specific aspect of personnel management, and therefore do not cover many factors. The author justifies their inextricable connection with each other in the organization's personnel management activities, in particular, personnel marketing, recruiting, professional development and career planning. The author analyzes, compares and synthesizes approaches to the interpretation of the concepts studied by both foreign and domestic authors. For a better understanding of the concepts under study, the author reviews modern publications on various aspects of personnel management, such as management psychology, conflictology, psychology of individuals, collectives and groups. The author notes that domestic researchers interpret the concept of personnel competitiveness as a set of personal and professional characteristics of personnel, whereas foreign scientists use the concept of personnel efficiency. The author outlines some opportunities for the development of human capital. The author finally reveals that the problem of increasing personnel competitiveness, a leadership style, a team climate and measures for human capital management are interconnected.

Keywords: personnel management, human capital, personnel competitiveness, personnel marketing, labor economics


THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

Author(s): N.A. Zhukova

Annotation: The author in her article considers the factors that shape the dynamics of the socio-economic environment of various groups of countries in the process of globalization of the world economy. The author reviews various scientific theories of assessing the mechanisms of economic globalization in the XIX-XXI centuries. The author outlines her approach to the definition of globalization, which is based on the acknowledgement that the aggravation of competition in international markets of goods and services is the main factor influencing the process of globalization. The analysis of the impact of globalization on the quality of the socio-economic environment of countries with different levels of development, based on the opinion of a large group of specialists, allowed us to systematize both positive and negative consequences of globalization. Positive factors include increasing labor productivity, improving the quality of products and services, reducing aggregate costs and prices, improving environmental protection, spreading social ideas, humanizing public relations, improving working conditions and the quality of life of the population. The adverse consequences of globalization are associated with the increased uneven development and instability of the economy, the emergence of global crises, the weakening of national economic systems, the deepening of economic backwardness in underdeveloped countries, the aggravation of global poverty and uneven access to the achievements of scientific-technical progress. A comparative analysis of the degree of influence of globalization on the socio-economic processes taking place in Russia and in a number of developed countries has revealed an increased dependence of the dynamics of our country's GDP on the results of foreign trade. In order to reduce the impact of negative factors of globalization, it is necessary to further improve Russias foreign trade policy, taking into account the use of all the possibilities of a set of protective and offensive measures outlined in the documents and rules of the World Trade Organization.

Keywords: factors of globalization, international trade, socio-economic consequences, improvement of the quality of life, global poverty system, defensive and offensive measures


MENTORING AS A TOOL TO REDUCE YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT: THE METHODOLOGY OF THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION AND ITS PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION

Author(s): D. S. Amonova, P. I. Ananchenkova, O. A. Martirosyan

Annotation: According to current data, at present over 64 million young people around the world are unemployed, so youth employment remains a global problem and a main political task of states focused on human potential development. Committed to promoting decent work for young people, the International Labor Organization is developing a wide range of practices that can effectively reduce youth unemployment and ensure a long-term retention of young professionals in the workplace. One of such practices is the mentoring system, which is generally perceived as an integral part of the companys personnel policy, and narrowly - as a personnel work technique that provides for socialization and on-site adaptation of new employees, improving their skills, mastering corporate competencies and, all in all, career motivation. The article analyzes the theoretical aspects of organizing a mentoring system using the methodology of the International Labor Organization, and provides data from the authors research project on the development and roll-out of mentoring programs implemented on the basis of enterprises in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

Keywords: mentoring, apprenticeship, International Labor Organization, trade union, program, staff


FINANCIAL CONSULTING AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC SECURITY DURING MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

Author(s): R.R.Abdurakhmanova

Annotation: The author in her article considers financial consulting as an effective tool for ensuring economic security in mergers and acquisitions. This article is topical as it is necessary to develop estimation methods for the most important financial indicators that affect economic security at all levels in the interests of shareholders, employees, managers, creditors and potential investors in mergers and acquisitions in conditions of market uncertainty and constantly increasing macroeconomic instability under the influence of domestic and international factors. Managers of large companies are aware that it is not always possible to identify vulnerability of the company on their own. Sometimes, it is advisable to use the services of financial consultants, who help to identify new strategic ways of development and achieve the desired results. The most important indicators that affect economic security are the coefficients that characterize the companys financial stability and determine its future attractiveness for mergers and acquisitions. The assessment of financial stability is important for ensuring the solvency of each particular organization. It also allows you to provide the most objective information for all users interested in it. In conclusion, the author provides some recommendations for a comprehensive approach and re-centering the strategy of mergers and acquisitions at all stages of consulting, which conclusions are innovative and of practical significance.

Keywords: financial consulting, financial consultant, financial markets, strategic consulting, economic security, mergers and acquisitions


ADVANTAGES OF A TRADE UNION IN THE FEDERAL CUSTOMS SERVICE OF RUSSIA

Author(s): Tonkonog V.V.

Annotation: The Federal customs service is a Federal Executive authority that provides for the establishment of various types of public service. In this regard, the study of the activities of the trade Union of customs authorities, as a voluntary Association of citizens connected by common industrial or professional interests in the field of activity, is interesting and relevant. The article considers the structure of the trade Union of the Federal customs service of Russia. They also considered the areas of activity of the trade Union, which include the implementation of measures in the social sector, in the sector of physical culture and sports, and organizational-mass work with the youth sector, and the labor protection sector responsible for creating healthy and safe working conditions (services) in the customs authorities. The analysis of the number of members of the trade Union and studied the features of the trade committees. Carried out analysis allowed the author to draw conclusions and to identify the benefits of trade Union membership of the FCS of Russia, denoting the provision of legal safeguards in professional and social-labor rights.

Keywords: Trade Union, labor protection, social guarantees, membership, civil service, customs authorities


Issue #4 of year 2020

PROBLEMS OF PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR PREPARATION FOR THE CHOICE OF A PROFESSION IN THE FIELD OF ECONOMY

Author(s): F. V. Filina, D. V. Timokhin

Annotation: The article is devoted to identifying the role of career guidance at the school level in order for students to correctly realize the prospects for their professional self-determination. This is important, given increased attention to the problems of disabled people in terms of ensuring their social rehabilitation and greater involvement in labor relations. The authors prove that mastering a profession that fits the abilities and capabilities of people with certain health restrictions is impossible without a well-established career guidance work at school. The authors identify the features of the organization of the educational process at school, which make it difficult for students to quickly adapt to the organization of the educational process at college. The authors conclude that in order to smooth out the problems of adaptation of students to the college model of education, additional efforts are required to develop special skills in organizing cognitive activity. The authors consider the motivational factors for choosing the profession of economist by future applicants. The authors identify obstacles that prevent students with disabilities from better understanding their personal positions in the modern labor market. The authors finally provide some recommendations regarding the organization of career guidance at schools and colleges in order to assist students with disabilities in their preparation for entering a college.

Keywords: professional self-determination, motivation, career guidance, inclusion, labor market, economist profession


CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF WORLD CURRENCY RESERVES AT THE PRESENT STAGE

Author(s): L. I. Fadeeva

Annotation: The article deals with a topical phenomenon of the modern economy related to a decline in the interest of Central Banks in many countries to the US dollar as the main reserve currency and an increase in the share of other national currencies in the structure of gold and exchange currency reserves of countries. The analysis carried out by the author reveals the latest trends in the development of this process. Using global statistics and the Russian statistical material, the author reveals some underlying trends of recent years. Moreover, they are compared with the trends that emerged at the start of the XXI century. It turned out that such a global phenomenon as the decline in the share of the US dollar in the international reserves of Central Banks that happened in the first decade of the XXI century still persists and deepens. In recent years, the attitude of the financial market to a number of currencies has changed. New trends have emerged, and new currencies are beginning to play a significant role in international reserves. In this regard, the author focuses on the fact that the share of the US dollar in the worlds official reserves is steadily decreasing. In addition, the author in her article appreciates the policy of the Bank of Russia aimed at de-dollarization of official reserves of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: de-dollarization, gold and foreign exchange reserves of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, world official reserves, international reserves


THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISE BUSINESS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC (FOREIGN REVIEW)

Author(s): N. A. Lomakina

Annotation: Regardless of the chosen development model, small, medium, and large businesses were faced with a coronavirus pandemic - force majeure that negatively affected the main economic indicators both within the framework of industry trends and from the perspective of regional business development assessment. The franchise business was no exception. The analysis of publications describing the development of the franchise business in different countries allows us to demonstrate some of the market challenges and the reaction of individual networks to them. The article presents data on measures taken by well-known franchising companies in the United States, Canada, Great Britain and other countries to maintain economic stability and reduce force majeure risks during the COVID-19 outbreak. The author outlines some main recommendations for ensuring the stability of enterprises operating under the franchise model, including: - a creation of a site strategic group, which would include the main participants of the franchise agreement, in order to take strategic decisions regarding the development of the network, taking into account regional specifics of doing business and understanding each partners personal problems; - an overview of the supply chain for franchisees and other agreements with third parties; - supporting force majeure claims by the franchisee; - a temporary waiver of unreasonable expenses (business trips, indirect advertising, social programs, etc.); - reducing operating expenses; - maintaining the liquidity of the network as a whole and each participant individually; - preserving the client base.

Keywords: franchising, franchisee, business, pandemic, COVID-19, stability, economic risks


TRANSFORMATION OF MANAGEMENT DECISIONS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF COVID-19: PERSONNEL POLICY, EMPLOYMENT, JOBS

Author(s): M. Yu. Kuznetsov

Annotation: The author in his article examines the conditions that compel the global economy to make decisions on a macro-economic scale, focused on the post-pandemic strategic development of the country as a whole. In this regard, the author focuses on the need to review strategic plans and adjust current initiatives and previously planned activities, such as investment, financing, development of new markets and technologies, etc. The author notes that the COVID-19 pandemic has become a catalyst for multiple changes in the field of real business, both in terms of organizing work processes, and in terms of financial flows, labor relations, technological modernization, and the transition to new forms of employment. The author presents some results of the PwC study, which revealed the concerns of company managers about the most important issues of further business development in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the author concludes that in order to maintain the pre-crisis results achieved, company managers should study not only new behaviors of their employees, but also the tools that stimulate productivity and creativity of employees in remote, and at the same time joint professional activities.

Keywords: pandemic, coronavirus, transformation of management decisions, employment, jobs


THE CONSUMER PROTECTION AND THE LEGAL RECOGNITION OF ELECTRONIC EVIDENCE IN THE MODERN WORLD (AS APPLIED TO RUSSIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF CTE DIVOIRE

Author(s): L.P.Coulibali, E.A.Kozlova

Annotation: At the present stage, when the world is experiencing a moment of forced isolation of people from each other, it is difficult to imagine what could be more relevant in the field of economics and law than an electronic contract. This is mainly because it is dematerialized and interactive and is recognized by the international community. On the other hand, the same features of an electronic contract (dematerialized nature, universality, interactivity) cause certain difficulties, as all these parameters require its evidentiary value. An electronic contract governs the rules borrowed from various legal disciplines (civil law, criminal law, banking law, etc.). This leads the authors to the need to study the evidence of the validity of an electronic contract. Written evidence, which traditionally referred to the concept of a "contract", was intended only for writing on a material medium. In today's dematerialized communication environment, the following questions need to be answered: what are the consequences of accepting evidence of electronic contracts, how to prove the existence or disappearance of an obligation generated by an obligation created electronically. The authors focus on the legal recognition of electronic evidence and electronic signatures in order to explain their legal status.

Keywords: electronic contract, electronic signature, cybersecurity, consumer protection, information technology, digital rights


CONSUMER BEHAVIOR OF CITIZENS AMIDST THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Author(s): Yu.V.Indychenko

Annotation: Consumer behavior of citizens is the basis for the functioning of the economy of any country. Consumers have a significant impact on the formation of demand for consumer goods and services, while their consumption provides the need for the reproduction process. Behavioral motives have a greater influence on the consumption of citizens. The generally accepted classification of the population by age group, according to the theory of generations, indicates a variety of motives for consumption of citizens. In addition to the age criterion, consumption is significantly affected by economic indicators and processes taking place in the country. It is worth noting that consumption is directly dependent on the total income of citizens and savings, which are fundamental indicators of the countrys economy. In 2020, the world was shocked by the coronavirus pandemic that not only affected the economies of all countries, but also changed the consumer behavior of citizens. The article below analyzes the behavior of consumers in the current situation against a backdrop of the pandemic and the willingness of citizens to consume at such an alarming time for the whole world. At the same time, the author, using economic and statistical methods, identified the trend of consumption motives of representatives of different generations, and also analyzed the behavior of various age groups amidst the COVID-19.

Keywords: consumption, expenses, savings, income, behavioral motives


SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN ASSESSING THE CREDITWORTHINESS OF POTENTIAL BORROWERS

Author(s): . . Zagarey, . . Ivlev

Annotation: The article identifies the economic nature of credit risk and factors that can influence the process of its occurrence and development, and also substantiates the special importance of credit analysis not only for a credit institution, but also for third-party users. The article describes the procedure for identifying the presence or absence of risks, the risk management procedure with a breakdown of stages and the tools used for these purposes, the process of regulating and controlling credit risk in a commercial bank as the most vulnerable unit of the Russian financial system, as well as the associated risks. The authors justify the necessity of a detailed analysis of the creditworthiness of each potential customer and information he/she provides for verification as a tool to ensure financial security of commercial banks and other commercial organizations, as well as the consequences that may result from ignoring of, or irresponsible attitude to, the importance of identifying credit risk. The authors provide a summary list of socio-economic factors that are subject to a detailed analysis in the process of assessing the creditworthiness of a potential borrower. The article presents a method for ranking customers of a commercial bank using a rating system.

Keywords: economic security, creditworthiness, risk management, analysis, assessment


PRIVATE CHARITY AND ACTIVITIES OF CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS: SOME POLL RESULTS

Author(s): A. A. Gorsky

Annotation: Effective Russian legislation defines charitable activity as "voluntary activity of citizens and legal entities for the unselfish (free of charge or on preferential terms) transfer of property, including money, to citizens or legal entities, for the unselfish performance of works, provision of services, and other support" [11]. Such activity is carried out by individuals, corporate donors and non-profit organizations. At the same time, the forms, methods, activity and intensity of such socialized practices undergo significant changes depending on a number of macro- and microeconomic factors, global world and local regional trends, and due to the information and communication goals of donors themselves - strengthening their reputation, image, brand awareness, etc. Based on a secondary analysis of Russian and foreign research on the development of private charity, the author notes that donors are most willing to provide financial assistance to people affected by natural disasters, environmental, industrial or other disasters, as well as transfer funds for environmental protection and animal protection. The investigations show that the willingness and ability of citizens to sacrifice personal savings to charity does not depend on a countrys wealth, political power, dominant religion, financial well-being of donors themselves and other factors. The author draws some conclusions about the factors that have a positive impact on the development of charity.

Keywords: charity, charitable activity, donors, donations, charitable organizations, development


Nonprofit organizations amid the pandemic: development of civil society structures in the context of self-regulation and public administration

Author(s): O. A. Volkova

Annotation: The author in her article analyzes the problems of development of civil society structures, such as nonprofit organizations, in the context of the pandemic. The relevance of the work is that international, regional and local public organizations are increasingly involved in the fight against coronavirus. The author uses the method of content analysis of official websites of public organizations. As a result, the author reveals several trends in the functioning of public organizations. Thus, nonprofit organizations self-organize their own activities, focusing on the current situation in the health sector. Cooperation between specialized non-governmental organizations at various levels is being strengthened. Links are being established between public organizations and health institutions of various departmental affiliations and forms of ownership. Interaction between nonprofit organizations and business companies is growing. In countries around the world, government support for nonprofit organizations that are involved in the work to overcome the situation with the pandemic is increasing. In addition, it was revealed that civil society structures operate in such areas as comprehensive primary care for victims, delivery of medical supplies to hospitals, providing people with food, delivery of essential goods to disease centers, crowdfunding, and provision of highly specialized services.

Keywords: socialized nonprofit organizations, self-regulation, civil society, pandemic


SOME TRENDS IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE ECONOMY AND BUSINESS PROCESSES

Author(s): A. E. Belolipetskaya, T. A. Golovina, A. V. Polyanin

Annotation: The authors in their article identify some global trends in personnel management in the digital economy. The authors set out the main paths of the development of human resources in the context of digital transformation of the economy and business processes in Russia. At the same time, the authors take into consideration the requirements of the new federal project Personnel for the digital economy and world practices. The authors analyze the level of development of digitalization and consider the trends in the development of personnel for the digital economy up to 2024. The authors settle the requirements for the content of human capital in the current competitive environment in the economy. The authors define the list and essence of skills, abilities and necessary competencies for effective work in the conditions of digitalization. The authors consider international experience in the development of digital competencies of personnel, and outline the advantages and disadvantages of the models already practiced abroad. The authors identify and lay down the main paths of the development of human capital in Russia in the digital economy. In addition, the authors of the article conclude that the digital economy is a global trend that has ceased to be brand new, but always remains relevant as digital technologies and management methods develop.

Keywords: digitalization, personnel, personnel management, model of competencies


SOME PROBLEMS OF LABOR PROTECTION AND REGULATION OF SOCIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS

Author(s): B. G. Zbyshko, Yu. V. Baranov

Annotation: This study deals with problematic aspects in the organization of labor protection and regulation of social and labor relations. The authors draw attention to the low level of labor protection rules not only for average employees, but also for would-be managers. There is a departmental difference in statistical data in the field of labor protection. There is no practice of assessing economic damage from industrial injuries and occupational diseases. The authors stress that it is necessary to improve the system of labor protection management, control and supervision. In addition, the author analyzes the loopholes in the legal support of collective and contractual regulation of social and labor relations. The powers of organizations in the social partnership system need to be expanded. The authors put emphasis on the indissoluble connection of issues of occupational safety and hygiene in the implementation of national projects. The authors highlight that labor and social relations are important as the basis for the successful implementation of national projects. In this regard, occupational safety and health as a right guaranteed by the Russian Constitution for everyone must be ensured. The authors of the study propose some measures to solve said problems.

Keywords: occupational safety, occupational injuries, social and labor relations, social partnership, occupational safety and health


THE IMPACT OF THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC ON THE GLOBAL TOURISM MARKET

Author(s): P. I. Ananchenkova

Annotation: According to the latest data from the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the COVID-19 pandemic led to a 22% reduction in the number of international tourists in the first quarter of 2020, and in the next few years, the crisis may lead to an annual decrease in their number by 60-80% as compared to the figures for 2019. This puts at risk the well-being of millions of citizens around the world, especially in developing countries whose GDP is based on the income from the tourism industry. They will face the most severe GDP losses, which threatens to negate the progress made in advancing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The tourism sector is one of those sectors of the economy where there is a strong drop in turnover, orders, sales revenue and profits in many countries. Businesses and companies operating in the tourism sector are among the economic entities that recorded the largest decline in orders, sales revenue and increasing financial problems due to the worldwide coronavirus epidemic. Expert estimates of the prospects for the tourism development (as well as other sectors of the national economy) for the current year have been lowered several times since the outbreak of the disease, and uncertainty continues to dominate. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) has outlined several possible scenarios for the future of the tourism industry on an international scale, depending on how the crisis will develop. Current scenarios indicate a possible decrease in the number of inflowing tourists from 58% to 78% over the course of the year. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, the scale of entrepreneurship in the tourism sector and in many other sectors of national economies has significantly decreased, and there is now a strong decline and even a drop in economic growth in many countries. Therefore, it is necessary to hummer out systematic tools and programs to boost entrepreneurship, which tools and programs are an important element of the current active anti-crisis interventionist economic policy.

Keywords: tourism, pandemic, COVID-19, tourist flow, international arrivals, tourist market


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERSONNEL POTENTIAL OF THE DOMESTIC INDUSTRY

Author(s): E. N. Avilova

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of positive and negative factors that characterize the current level of development of the productive forces in our country. The author draws attention to the positive factors of the labor market that contribute to the introduction of modern world experience into effective personnel management of enterprises. The author analyzes the negative factors that lead to a slowdown in the development of the productive forces, and outlines a long-term trend of mass outflow of the most active young people to megacities. The author examines the problems of lack of demand by the labor market for young specialists of their main acquired profession. The author offers some solutions to this problem by improving the professional level of employees through intentional training, advanced training courses, series of subject seminars and internships. The author notes that such measures are economically sound only given the personnel stability. In addition, the author identifies the perils of shadow employment of workers, which lead, among other things, to violations of labor safety rules, social protection norms and labor legislation, as well as to difficulties in bringing workers back to the legal sector of industry. In the end, the author defines new tasks of the personnel management service of a modern enterprise in terms of organizing painstaking work with personnel.

Keywords: personnel potential, labor market, professional education, personnel shortage


EDUCATION IN A NEW SOCIAL REALITY: COVID-19 LESSONS

Author(s): Novikova N.M., Ananchenkova P.I.

Annotation: The COVID-19 pandemic, which covered the whole world in early 2020, in a very short time caused irreversible losses not only to the global economy, but also to its individual sectors. First of all, the coronavirus provoked a crisis in the national health systems and medical assistance to the population. Following health care, many other spheres of the national economy "fell down" and faced the need to make decisions adequate to the epidemiological situation that was shaping a new social reality. The education system was one of the first to respond to the anti-pandemic decisions of national governments. Governments around the world decided to close educational institutions. The only way out in this situation is distance learning. Currently, 53 states have already deployed national educational platforms that are forcing the transition to distance learning. The spread of the coronavirus pandemic acted, on the one hand, as a catalyst for structural and technological changes in national education systems, primarily due to the widespread and massive transition to distance learning technologies, and, on the other hand, as an indicator of the unavailability of subjects of educational systems for the transition to new technological learning conditions.

Keywords: coronavirus, education, national education systems, unavailability, crisis, distance learning, innovations


EDUCATION QUALITY MANAGEMENT ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF DOCTORAL EDUCATION

Author(s): Lipai T.P., Gevorgyan M. R.

Annotation: Quality is nowadays, quite rightly, a high priority and has become almost the very stuff of the education. Quality is at the top of most program and standard and improving quality is probably the most important task facing any social institution. Although there has been today attention to quality management and improvement in higher education, concerns about the quality of doctoral education persist. The contemporary doctoral program needs to provide excellent training for beyond research postgraduate education and order to launch creative, critical and autonomous intellectual risk takers. This paper sketches out the main drivers of change and explores the main challenges confronting doctoral study mainly within the Republic of Armenia and Republic of Belarus. The training of doctoral graduates is at the heart of the mission of both Armenian and Belarusian HEIs. Programs delete space doctoral aim to train the next generation of researchers to the highest skill levels in labour market. This article argues that addressing these concerns will require a shift in perspective.

Keywords: social institutions, education quality management, social relations, quality of doctoral and postgraduate education


THE USE OF E-LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN FOSTER PARENT TRAINING PROGRAMS IN MODERN RUSSIA: FUNCTIONALITY AND DYSFUNCTIONALITY

Author(s): Besschetnova O., Kadutskiy P

Annotation: There is an increasing number of orphans and children left without parental care worldwide according to national monitoring as well as individual scientific studies. The urgent need of pre-service foster parent training in many countries including Russia is recognized at the professional level from academics, practitioners, and foster parents themselves. Qualified foster parent training is necessary for work with children without parental care who have the experience of living in institutions. The lack of qualified training leads to conflicts, misunderstandings, severe traumatization of children, and "secondary" social orphan hood. Foster parent training also reduces the risk of returning children from foster care to institutions and helps to improve the efficiency of social adaptation of all family members. Foster parent training methods vary widely within the country. The remote training is conducted solely by posting information on the web-site of the organization, the use of tutorials, videos and audio materials. The interviews of foster parents (n = 74), mostly mothers (92.0 %), confirmed the effectiveness of using multimedia and its positive impact on increasing the level of foster parents training, especially in rural areas where foster parents can have an access to different kinds of professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, practitioners, etc. via Internet resources, as well as they can create a virtual group of supporters where discuss the most important issues concerning the upbringing of foster children and the methods of communication with their biological parents. The use of e-learning technologies will contribute to the development of pedagogical and educational skills of foster parents, as well as promote the policy of deinstitutionalization of orphanhood in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: children left without parental care; foster parent training; e-learning technologies


Issue #3 of year 2020

VIRTUAL CURRENCY OF A VIRTUAL ECONOMY

Author(s): Khalikov M.S., Sidorov D.K.

Annotation: The article examines digitalization as a process with information and communication technologies (ICT) in its core, the broad usage of which creates conditions for e-commerce and further development of the digital economy. The most important tool for the development of the virtual economy is cryptocurrency. Some countries, including the USA, consider cryptocurrency as a type of virtual currency, which can be used as a means of payment in the process of material goods exchange. The article claims that the cryptocurrency market appearance forced Central banks of various countries to start the creation of their own substitutes digital currencies of Central banks. The reasons for the attractiveness of the digital currencies for the economic agents are the availability of digital currencies for end-users, the anonymity of the payments and data transfers mechanism simplicity. Digital currencies can nowadays be perceived as a new form of cash or a new mean of digital accounts, which is replacing the current accounts, based on the national currency or physical assets. Authors of the abstract are convinced, that this process could lead to the emergence of an alternative virtual economy.

Keywords: digitalization, digital economy, internet, cryptocurrency, crypto economy, registry, blockchain, tokens, digital currencies of Central banks, commercial banks, digital currency, virtual economy


DIRECTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEDERAL CUSTOMS SERVICE AND THE FEDERAL TAX SERVICE ON INTERAGENCY COOPERATION

Author(s): Arestova Y.A., Tonkonog V.V.

Annotation: In the field of monitoring the implementation of interdepartmental interaction of Executive authorities, you can find a lot of topical problems that have not been resolved to date, requiring appropriate theoretical and practical developments. These negative trends are related to the acute issue of imperfection of the current legislation, since Russia has not yet adopted a relevant law that would allow monitoring the implementation of interdepartmental interaction of Executive authorities. Of course, we cannot say that the actions of Executive authorities in joint interaction are absolutely uncontrolled, since they are based on the principles of power and subordination, if this interaction is implemented vertically or comes from joint agreements, where the issue of control over the activities of state bodies is much more acute. In the Russian Federation, issues of interdepartmental interaction between the Federal customs service of Russia (FCS) and the Federal tax service of Russia (FTS) are currently of particular importance. However, the scope of their regulation is mainly limited to official relations within the framework of the exercise of their powers. In this regard, improving interdepartmental interaction between the Federal customs service and the Federal tax service of Russia is very important.

Keywords: interagency cooperation, Federal tax service, Federal customs service, unified mechanism, customs and tax administration


THE TRADE UNIONS ROLE IN IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN REGULATING SOCIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS AT SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES

Author(s): V.N. Skvortsov

Annotation: The author in his article describes and systematizes some key problems of all-Russian trade unions of small and medium-sized businesses. The author identifies some problem areas of the trade union movement in the small sector of the economy, and priority guidelines for fixing them, enhancing the role and importance of trade unions in the development of social partnership and in the process of modernizing social and labor relations in the field of small business. In this regard, the author proposes the so-called cluster approach. The author substantiates the importance and urgency of reforming the structure of trade unions of small and medium-sized businesses. The author provides some specific recommendations to trade union leaders as to how to brisk up the field work, increase the number of trade union members, improve existing tools and develop new ones to motivate trade union membership, as well as to ensure human resources development and create an employment pool. In addition, the author focuses on the need to organize competent information work in the trade union structure and streamline legislation. The author recommends that the state structures and employers should carry out a social dialogue and develop social partnership. The author proposes developing new forms of influence of trade unions in the sphere of regulation of social and labor relations at small-scale enterprises.

Keywords: small business, trade union movement, social partnership, social and labor relations, transformation of public relations, employee potential


THE IMPACT OF THE INSTITUTION OF SOCIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS ON THE COMPOSITION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE

Author(s): P. V. Simonin

Annotation: The article deals with the issues of establishing the minimum wage, taking into account the influence of the institution of social and labor relations. The author focuses on the main task the creation of institutional conditions for the development of social and labor relations, which task predetermines the retrospective stages of the development of the minimum wage in different countries. The author reveals that it is feasible to use such a powerful tool for regulating the minimum wage as agreements and national legislation in the process of social and labor relations. As a result of his theoretical and methodological research, the author arrives at a conclusion that it is necessary to form a minimum wage that is close to the ideal of social justice and civil rights. The author substantiates the importance of such information in the labor market, which determines the level and boundaries of wages and the quality of labor resources use. The author proves that drawing the cost of labor nearer to the physiological minimum can lead to a fall in wages, which causes a cumulative effect due to a reduction in the volume of labor services. In the end, the author concludes that the lack of fair income is due to unjustified methods of its distribution and an inefficient system of social and labor relations. Such system is typical for the Russian labor model, where wages are the remaining share of the employee in the gross income of the enterprise.

Keywords: minimum wage, social and labor relations, trade unions, justice, labor services, methods of distribution, income


THE IMAGE OF A TERRITORY IN RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN STUDIES (LITERATURE SERVEY)

Author(s): N.L. Simonets

Annotation: The author in her article reviews some foreign and Russian publications devoted to a territorial image-building as an important factor of a social and economic growth of the respective regions, as well as image management. Foreign research in the field of image of territories received a blanket coverage in the scientific literature at the close of the XXth century, when the proven effectiveness of intangible resources (goodwill, brand, image, publicity) in relation to goods, services and their producers began to exceed solid tangible assets (production capacities, inventory, etc.) in value terms. Research in the field of image science has moved from branding material goods to creating sustainable territorial brands. The purpose of this work is to consider the palette of scientific ideas about the conditions for a territorial image-building, the factors that favorably affect the consolidation of a positive image of the territory in the minds of target audiences, and the basic elements of territorial image-making. The author concludes that positive image-making of the territory primarily contributes to the improvement of the social and economic situation in this region, namely, new jobs are created, the cultural and educational standards of life are increased, environmental awareness is growing, family ties are strengthened and concern for the future of the young generation is manifested. We are attracting new educated personnel; the region is becoming more popular for tourists; investors are more willing to invest in the region in different areas; and various international organizations are competing for the opportunity to hold significant events in this region.

Keywords: image, territory, branding, image-making activity, development


HONG KONG EXPERIENCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COMMERCIALLY EFFICIENT MODEL OF INVESTMENT, CONSTRUCTION AND RAILWAY MANAGEMENT

Author(s): N.A. Potevsky

Annotation: In this paper, we analyze the integrated management model for the development of railway transport and property (Rail plus Property Model), successfully implemented by the Hong Kong company MTR. The company's philosophy is that a railway (underground line) will not provide an adequate rate of return on investment, and only through the development of land around stations and along the passing lines can the company attract private investors and remain solvent. The development of transport infrastructure using this model leads to an increase in the company's profitability, and, as in the case of MTRC, almost complete financial independence from the government. In addition, due to the high pace of infrastructure construction, the density of the transport network increases. This contributes to the growth of passenger traffic and population mobility, which thereby has an indirect effect on economic growth through the flow of labour force to areas, where there is a shortage of it. The integrated model is successfully used in various countries of the world, including Europe; therefore it can be applied in Russia, especially in the construction of high-speed railways (HSR) that are promising infrastructure projects requiring significant financial expenditure.

Keywords: project management, railway transport, high speed railways, public private partnership, development activities, railway infrastructure


THE THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE ACCOUNTING FOR INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT: THE EVOLUTION OF IDEAS Part 3. Improving the methodology for accounting for informal employment in Russia

Author(s): D. V. Nekipelova

Annotation: The estimates of the breadth of informal employment spreading are a key indicator in the development of the basic trends in its state and social regulation. Over the past decades since the discovery of the phenomenon of hidden economic activity as a component of the urban employment structure in developing countries, the concept of informal employment has evolved from its description as a way of survival for marginalized segments of the population to hidden entrepreneurship that unfairly competes with the main market. Based on the prevailing paradigms, the International Labor Organization sought to develop a universal methodology for informal employment accounting, which would most fully cover all its manifestations and take into account its national characteristics. To achieve this goal, methodological recommendations were developed and implemented for accounting informal employment. In 2002, the concept of the informal sector expanded to the concept of the informal economy covering not only the activities of informal production units (enterprises), but also informal jobs, as well as the activities of informal individuals (self-employed). The author in her article discusses the evolution of theoretical and methodological ideas of informal employment within the framework of the basic scientific approaches, and evaluates the methodology for accounting for informal employment in Russia for compliance with the international standards adopted by the International Labor Organization.

Keywords: Informal employment, production approach, legalist approach, the theory of informal sector, small-scale commodity production, labor market


DIGITAL MARKETING IN THE TOURISM BUSINESS

Author(s): E. V. Moreeva, A. A. Komarova, E. V. Dianina

Annotation: In the modern globalizing world, digitalization as an objective social reality acts, on the one hand, as a factor in the development of the national economy branches, on the other hand, as a characteristic that describes the vector of development of individual objects, processes and phenomena. The main purpose of this work is to consider typical examples of the use of digital technologies in the tourism business and assess the dynamics of their development in a strategic perspective. In their article, the authors used a method of content analysis by way of studying publications that described examples of the use of digital technologies in the tourism sector. Upon results of their survey, the authors identified the main digital marketing technologies used in tourism in shaping tourist attractiveness of a territory. The main trend in digitalization of tourism enterprises is a digitalization of territorial marketing. The main technological method of digitization of territorial marketing is a geobranding technology, i.e. a set of measures to develop the territory's brand, image, visual and other cognitive links that ensure sustainable tourism associations. The main conclusion of the article is that an important factor in the development of digital technologies in the field of tourism has been identified. It is an electronic integration of various sources, resources and subjects into the information space, which provides a multi-vector and polythematic representation of the territory as a tourist object.

Keywords: tourism, digital marketing, Internet technologies, digitalization, geobranding, communications, travel industry, blog tour


MIGRATION POLICY AND LEGAL REGULATION OF LABOR MIGRATION

Author(s): N. A. Mitryashova

Annotation: This article deals with migration processes in modern Russia. In this regard, the author assesses their role in the social, economic and demographic development of the Russian Federation. The author highlights that the migration policy today should be regarded as an integral part of the state foreign and home policy of Russia, and its pursuance - as one of the priority tasks of the state. The author considers some issues of regulating the migration legislation, its place and role in the system of the Russian legislation. The author draws attention to the fact that migration currently affects many aspects of life in Russian society, especially in the field of labor. The author tells about the current demographic situation in the country, as well as how much migration movement exerts influence on demography. The author discloses the reasons for the migration outflow from the country, summarizes and classifies the main types of migration in modern Russia. At the same time, the author pays special attention to the issues of labor migration and analyzes its main causes. The author concludes that the complex nature of relations in the field of migration makes it necessary to strengthen systemic approaches to ensuring legal regulation in this area.

Keywords: migration, population, migration legislation, natality, population loss due to natural causes, types of migration, labor law


CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF DISCIPLINARY RESPONSIBILITY OF THE HEAD OF THE ORGANIZATION

Author(s): A.M.Kotenko

Annotation: This article concerns a legal regulation of disciplinary responsibility of managers of modern organizations. As a result of the analysis carried out by the author of the article, it was found that the current provisions of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation did not clearly define the grounds for applying to the heads of organizations such a strict measure of disciplinary responsibility as dismissal. It was also found that the same provisions of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation did not clearly specify those authorized officials, as well as organizations that had the right to apply general or special disciplinary measures to managers. In this regard, the author proposes that the grounds, measures of disciplinary responsibility, as well as specific representatives of employers, who have the right to apply such measures should be defined directly in the charters of organizations, as well as in employment agreements with employees. The author presumes that such steps aimed to establish a circle of authorized officials of organizations who have the right to apply disciplinary measures to the heads of organizations will help to streamline labor relations, as well as significantly reduce the number of labor disputes.

Keywords: disciplinary responsibility, measures of disciplinary responsibility, heads of organizations, employees, employers, legal responsibility


THE SOCIAL AND LABOR SPHERE AND THE ROLE OF LABOR IN THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC

Author(s): A. B. Doctorovich

Annotation: The author in his article analyzes the complex and tense economic situation that has developed in Russia and worldwide in connection with the global virus epidemic. The author scrutinizes the social and labor sphere (SLS) and its structure, the dedicated measures the President and the Government of the Russian Federation take to overcome the economic crisis in Russia and the role of labor in the future development of the Russian economy. The author states that during the modern crisis in the economy caused by the pandemic, it is the SLS and the economically active population - the bearer of labor potential (LP) that are capable to actively resist the crisis phenomena, slow down the decline of the economy and its main indicators, and ensure an increase in business activity. Therefore, in the modern economy, subject to conditions necessary for the economic development, a verified approach and competent regulation, only the SLS can to a considerable extent actively resist the crisis and create opportunities for economic growth. In conclusion, the author defines some practical proposals for the restoration and subsequent development of the social and labor sphere in Russia.

Keywords: social and labor sphere (SLS), SLS structure, branches of the social sphere, labor, labor market, bearers of labor potential, economically active population


VENTURE CAPITAL FINANCING IN EUROPE

Author(s): E. E. Barseghyan

Annotation: Technical progress does not stand still, and it is constantly developing. In the second half of the XX century, in the EU countries the following areas received a significant impetus in the development of innovative technologies: microelectronics, information technology, biotechnology, light industry, etc. This technological breakthrough was due to the advent of the era of mass personal computers. There was a huge economic growth at the time, mainly at the expense of the funds of venture capital, with which such high-tech companies as eBay, Apple, Federal Express, Google, Amazon, etc. have received financial support. The author in his article examines the impact of venture capital on the economic development of the European Union countries, and analyzes the importance of supporting small and medium-sized businesses to further obtain the latest innovative solutions and create new industries. The author carries out an analysis of statistical data on venture investment in the EU, and also examines the impact of economic crises during the fifth long Kondratiev wave. The author concludes that it is necessary to support small firms on the basis of venture financing in Russia as well as an example of foreign countries in order not to miss the moment of transition to a new economic level.

Keywords: venture financing, economy, entrepreneurship, small business, large business, economic stage, investment, startup


THE FORMATION OF NEW PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL COMPETENCIES OF HIGHER SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF DIGITALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY

Author(s): O. V. Balandina, A. B. Veshkurova, I. V. Filimonova, S. A. Shapiro

Annotation: In their paper, the authors considered the main approaches to improving the organization of labor of research and educational workers of higher educational institutions in the process of teaching management disciplines in the context of the introduction of digital technologies. The article described the foreign experience of studying the demand for professional competencies necessary for employees to ensure their competitiveness in the Swiss labor market in the conditions of global digitalization in all areas of economic activity. As a result of their research, the authors identified the priorities concerning the form and presentation of scientific material presented by teachers, as well as the process of forming professional and personal competencies of employees necessary for working in the new digital reality. The authors singled out and construed the most important of them. The authors also identified the factors that determined the motivational trend in teaching in modern conditions. The authors analyzed the comparison of the results obtained with the results of their research conducted in 2019 to identify the needs of students in social, economic and managerial areas of training in the use of digital technologies. The authors concluded that the teaching staff was not quite ready to meet the needs of students for the formation of professional competencies in the new technological conditions. The authors drew a conclusion about the trends and prospects of digitalization of the higher socio-economic education system in the Russian Federation and the urgent need for research and teaching staff to improve their digital literacy and professional competences in the conditions of the 4.0 revolution.

Keywords: digitalization of the economy, priorities, teaching of socio-economic disciplines, management, competences, creativity, social intelligence


THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATE EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES IN COMPANY MANAGERS JUDGMENT (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF SECONDARY ANALYSIS)

Author(s): P. I. Ananchenkova

Annotation: The author in her article updates and considers the problem of developing corporate personnel development systems as one of the areas of personnel policy that ensures the reproduction of professional competencies in the internal labor market. When writing this article, the author used the method of content analysis of materials published in the open press that reflect the issues of modern development of corporate training as a tool for the competence development of employees. Furthermore, using the method of secondary analysis, the author summarized the data describing the attitude of managers and owners of companies to corporate educational practices, their most effective forms, technologies and methods of integration into personnel policy. The study showed the attitude of managers and owners of companies to the need to manage professional knowledge and competencies of employees, to create a system of continuous reproduction of corporate competencies through effective forms and methods of in-house training. The author concludes that the companies that are able to train qualified personnel do not experience an acute shortage of such personnel with a set of necessary professional competencies. However, only having skilled specialists does not guarantee a well-coordinated and effective production activity. It is necessary to constantly reproduce corporate professional competencies, which updates are justified by technical and technological innovations and global socio-economic trends.

Keywords: labor market, corporate training, professional competencies, managers, owners, employees


THE INTRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE BASES AT STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES

Author(s): E.N.Avilova

Annotation: The author in her article considers practical approaches to the introduction of knowledge bases at large state-owned enterprises. The author pays attention to the need to develop the personnel potential of the enterprise and preserve the knowledge of employees, which the employer in most cases forfeits when the employee is dismissed or moved to another workstation. There is a difference in the definitions and application of databases and knowledge bases. The author analyzes the factors that determine the feasibility of developing knowledge bases in order to stimulate the company's employees, develop creativity among a large number of employees, and turn them into partial creators. The author defines the main functional requirements for knowledge bases when implementing them at state enterprises, and offers some options to avoid clogging the base with "unnecessary knowledge" - formal questions/answers. The author considers possible options for nonfinancial incentives for employees in order for them to participate in the replenishment of the knowledge base. The author establishes the purpose of creating a knowledge base, that is to provide all employees with a real opportunity to use unified, reliable and up-to-date information. The author finally assumes that the knowledge base can become a significant element in the system of professional retraining and improving business skills, speeding up the process of training and adaptation of new employees.

Keywords: a knowledge base, personnel potential, employee motivation, a branch


FREE WILL IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND PHYSISCS

Author(s): Vasil Penchev

Annotation: If the concept of free will is reduced to that of choice all physical world shares the latter quality. Anyway the free will can be distinguished from the choice: The free will involves implicitly a certain goal, and the choice is only the mean, by which the aim can be achieved or not by the one who determines the target. Thus, for example, an electron has always a choice but not free will unlike a human possessing both. Consequently, and paradoxically, the determinism of classical physics is more subjective and more anthropomorphic than the indeterminism of quantum mechanics for the former presupposes certain deterministic goal implicitly following the model of human freewill behavior. Quantum mechanics introduces the choice in the fundament of physical world involving a generalized case of choice, which can be called subjectless: There is certain choice, which originates from the transition of the future into the past. Thus that kind of choice is shared of all existing and does not need any subject: It can be considered as a low of nature. There are a few theorems in quantum mechanics directly relevant to the topic: two of them are called free will theorems by their authors (Conway and Kochen 2006; 2009). Any quantum system either a human or an electron or whatever else has always a choice: Its behavior is not predetermined by its past. This is a physical law. It implies that a form of information, the quantum information underlies all existing for the unit of the quantity of information is an elementary choice: either a bit or a quantum bit (qubit).

Keywords: axiom of choice, choice, free will, free will theorems, goal, hidden variables, quantum information, quantum mechanics


TO A DIFFERENT WORLD? WHAT WE LEARN FROM THE CORONAVIRUS CRISIS

Author(s): Hubert Landier

Annotation: The coronavirus crisis is one of the many challenges that humanity must expect to face as a result of global warming and its thermo-industrial development. It will have very important consequences on the way human communities function and for the future of humanity. The "damage of progress" has nevertheless been underlined since the beginning of the 19th century by a number of socialist, libertarian and anarchist scientists and authors, who have highlighted its consequences not only in terms of social justice, but also for its effects on the natural environment. The coronavirus pandemic, as it will have affected practically all of humanity, is a consequence of the internationalization of trade, as a result of our dominant model of economic development. But it is arguably only one of the consequences, and perhaps not the most deadly. Indeed, account must be taken of the foreseeable effects of ongoing global warming, the decline in biodiversity, the increasing pollution of oceans, land and rivers, and the nuisance caused by the accumulation of non-recyclable industrial waste. Thus the time has come to renounce some of the principles on which the thermo-industrial civilization is based : fetishism of progress, priority given to economic reasoning and exploitation of nature and so, the West's claim to be a civilization of universal value.

Keywords: coronavirus, crisis, security, pandemic, society, business, environment


CONDITIONS FOR COLLECTING VAT ON GOODS IMPORTED INTO FREE ECONOMIC ZONES

Author(s): Timchenko T.N.

Annotation: To date, VAT is the first tax collected in the Russian Federation and the largest source of budget revenue, and the share of revenue from this tax is steadily increasing. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the fact that VAT is a complex tax that has its own specific features. Taking into account the fact that VAT benefits are applied only in the case of applying the customs procedure "free customs zone", in all other respects, residents of the SEZ are the same VAT taxpayers as the rest of the Russian Federation, and therefore also face problems related to the transformation of VAT legislation. In connection with the above, the purpose of the work was to study the peculiarities of VAT payment in the territory of special economic zones. In accordance with this goal, the paper considers the essence of value added tax and its place in the country's budget, identifies the features of VAT among all tax benefits in special economic zones, and analyzes the directions of VAT reform in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: VAT, types of rates, calculation procedure in the SEZ, prospects for reform


Issue #2 of year 2020

Problems and prospects for the development of education in the context of digitalization Part 2. Sociological assessment of the prospects for digitalization of educational processes

Author(s): Tkachenko E.N.

Annotation: The article discusses the problems and prospects of the digital transformation of education (DTE), which is an inevitable process that contributes to a change in the content, methods and organizational forms of educational activity, developing in the context of digitalization of a rapidly changing educational environment. This process sets as its main goal the solution of socio-economic development of Russia under the influence of the fourth industrial revolution and the formation of a digital economy. In the modern world, the introduction of digital technologies contributes to qualitative changes both in the manufacturing sector and in industry markets, involving in the process of digitalization and education. The basis for the production of publicly available individualized products is the combination of previously established material production and the use of digital technologies, expanding the range of methods based on the use of artificial intelligence and the active spread of the Internet of things. Against the background of the ongoing changes, it becomes obvious that under the influence of the digitalization process and the transition to the digital age, relevant specialists will be required, the training of which should be carried out in the conditions of the transformation of education and the technological revolution with the help of the transition from mass education of the entire population to high-quality education, based on the comprehensive development of the personality of a single person.

Keywords: digital transformation of education, information and educational environment, digital economy, artificial intelligence, Internet of things


SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PHENOMENON OF TAXATION

Author(s): Ye. G. Panov

Annotation: The article concerns social characteristics that reveal the role of taxation in the processes of forming the unity of a community and its social differentiation. In this regard, the author pays special attention to the so-called "fiscal sociology", which deals with the social processes directly related to taxation and public finance. The author demonstrates how the level of ideas about the social characteristics of taxation is formed supporting this with specific historical examples. The author notes that in the history of nations, tax obligations confer rights on citizens, which separates them from "non-citizens". Meanwhile, within civil society, these duties were allocated in accordance with the property qualification, which formed the structure of tax classes. The author emphasizes that the tax system creates a special network of communication links, which is designated as "tax culture" and defines the traditions of everyday behavior of members of society passed from generation to generation. The author concludes that at the level of the "philosophy of taxes", the role of taxation is to establish an order that would provide a way to achieve social welfare in a socially just way.

Keywords: tax phenomenon, tax system, social characteristics, social structure, tax culture, symbolic exchange, "tax philosophy"


THE METHODOLOGY OF STRATEGIC ECONOMIC PLANNING

Author(s): V. P. Oreshin

Annotation: The article is devoted to the problem of improving the methodology of strategic economic planning of the country. The author substantiates the need for a system of planning documents: a forecast, a plan (indicative and directive), programs, a budget. The author worked out a set of methods for determining the strategy of economic development at different stages of forming a comprehensive plan (program). The author formulated some recommendations for the use of tools for economic and mathematical modeling of the economy and its computer implementation to solve the problems of coordinated development of large industrial sectors of the economy. The author justified the choice of an algorithm for coupling and coordinated development of a dozen programs chosen by the country's leadership for quick solutions with a focus on achieving the main goal: high and stable economic growth rates. The author revealed the necessity of developing a comprehensive program of scientific and technological progress as a tool for solving the problem of building a post-industrial economy based on the intellectual capital of the nation as the main factor of economic growth. The author highlighted the scientific problem of developing tools for achieving the interest of economic entities to follow the indicative plan in their actions. The author finally concluded that there was an urgent need to radically restructure the current system of managing the social, economic and environmental development of the country.

Keywords: economic planning, tools of state regulation, economic forecast, indicative plan, state budget, State Planning Committee


THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ACCOUNTING FOR INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT: EVOLUTION OF CONCEPTS.

Author(s): D.V. Nekipelova

Annotation: Estimates of the scale of spread informal employment are a key indicator in the development of the main directions of its state-social regulation. Over the past decades since the discovery of the phenomenon of hidden economic activity as a component of the urban employment structure in developing countries, the concept of informal employment has evolved from its description as a way of survival for marginalized segments of the population to hidden entrepreneurship, which unfairly competes with the main market. Based on the prevailing paradigms, the International Labor Organization sought to develop a universal methodology for accounting for informal employment, able to most fully cover all its manifestations and consider national characteristics. To this end, methodological recommendations on the accounting of informal employment were developed and implemented. In 2002, the concept of the informal sector was expanded to the concept of the informal economy, covering not only the activities of informal production units (enterprises), but also informal jobs, as well as the activities of informal individuals (self-employed). The article discusses the evolution of ideas about informal employment in the framework of basic scientific approaches. The author assesses the methodology for accounting for informal employment in Russia for compliance with international standards adopted by the International Labor Organization.

Keywords: informal employment, production approach, legalistic approach, informal sector theory, small-scale production, labor market


SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION DURING ELIMINATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

Author(s): E. S. Molchanova, A. V. Dosugova

Annotation: mergency situations usually entail a number of negative socio-economic consequences that pose a serious threat to both the affected region and the economic security of the country as a whole. In order to minimize the risks of these threats, it is necessary both to prevent and eliminate emergencies in a timely manner, and to provide social and economic support to the affected population. Any disaster creates a zone of social tension due to the involvement of large groups of people. Federal emergencies are comparable in their destructive effects to the consequences of military actions. An ineffective system of socio-economic protection of the population can provoke the affected people to extreme behavior, which is fraught with unpredictable consequences. Therefore, it is strategically important to develop and implement a set of effective measures for social and economic protection of the population. At the present time, aiming to mitigate the consequences of an emergency, the State uses a number of socio-economic tools to ensure protection of the population, the most promising of which is insurance. On the one hand, insurance allows victims to recover guaranteed compensation; on the other hand, insurance reduces a burden on budgets of different levels. In other words, insurance is a financial stabilizer that allows to compensate the State, business and population for damages caused by emergency situations.

Keywords: social and economic protection of the population, emergency situations, risks of emergency situations, risk insurance, liability insurance


SPECIAL FEATURES OF MODELS FOR PROTECTING THE RIGHTS OF EMPLOYEES IN BANKRUPTCY OF THEIR EMPLOYERS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Author(s): V. A. Maltsev

Annotation: The article examines the main current models for protecting the rights of employees to salary in case of insolvency (bankruptcy) of employers in foreign countries. The author notes that the issues of securing the rights of employees in the event of bankruptcy of employers have become the subject of regulation not only by national, but also international law. At the same time, the main aspects in this area are still regulated and specified by the provisions of national legislation. However, the author pays attention to the fact that many countries already have mechanisms in place to protect the rights of employees in the event of an employer's insolvency. Among the current models of protection of employees rights to receive wages in case of an employers bankruptcy are Brazilian, European, American and Japanese. The author characterizes each of these models, and determines the specific character of their legal regulation and functioning. The author reveals some differences between the existing models, the essence of which is their regulation by various industry regulations, the procedure for creating special guarantee funds in the system of state bodies, as well as independent funds. The author discloses some features of state control over their functioning.

Keywords: bankruptcy, model, mechanisms, wages, guarantee funds, compensatory payments, insurance


RUSSIAN MODEL OF SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR THE FORMATION OF SOCIAL STATE

Author(s): M. A. Malyshev

Annotation: The article analyzes a rather rich experience of both practical work on the development of social partnership in Russia and theoretical research in this area. In this regard, the author draws attention to the fact that social partnership plays an increasing role in the real life of society, in the regulation of political, economic, social and labor relations. The author notes that as a result of nearly thirty years of development of social partnership in Russia, answers were found to many related theoretical and practical issues, and also a number of new and complex challenges were revealed, which scientific and practical solution could become an important factor for further effective development. Among them, the problem of forming the Russian model of development has a special place. In addition, the author points out the need for a unified legislative framework for the formation and organization of the work of social partnership institutions at various levels federal, regional, territorial (including sectoral and intersectoral). Finally, the author offers its own concept for the development of the Russian model of social partnership.

Keywords: concept, trade unions, social partnership, negotiations, collective agreement, agreement, social and economic development


Role of professional selfregulation in the interaction of society, the state and mass media

Author(s): Kumylganova I.A., Romanova R.

Annotation: The article contains an analysis of scientific research and expert assessments of the most authoritative contemporary researchers of the Finnish media, as well as specific cases of media practice in modern Finnish journalism. Using the scandal with the participation of the former Prime Minister of Finland Juha Sipil, the features of relations between society, the state and the media in Finland were examined, and the role of media self-regulation was taken into account. The paper contains empirical analyses of specific cases and treatises written by contemporary media experts, additional data were taken from interviews of the authors with media specialists and the resources related to the Finnish Council for Mass Media and other relevant websites. In addition, data from international studies in the field of mass communication and media self-regulation are presented. Based on these data, we address a research question about the effectiveness of media self-regulation in the context of political pressure on the media in the countries with the most stable media system. Based on these researches, the main issues of Finnish self-regulatory bodies have been identified and the assumptions about its development have been made.

Keywords: media self-regulation, media practice, social relations, Finnish media system, effectiveness of media self-regulation


LEGAL ASPECTS OF SOCIAL PARTNER RESPONSIBILITY

Author(s): A. M. Kotenko

Annotation: This scientific article deals with the currently legally defined concept of social partnership, which is enshrined in article 23 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis conducted, the author found that this definition did not fully correspond to the nature of social partnership relations in the field of labor, which is why the author proposed a new version of the concept of social partnership, which is defined at the legislative level. In addition, the author considered the features and legal foundations of legal responsibility in the field of social partnership. The author studied the nature of compliance of the domestic institution of social partnership with international sources of legal regulation of social partner relations. The author systematized and described the current Russian labor legislation regulating issues of legal responsibility in this sphere of labor relations. In the end, the author revealed the blanket nature of labor legislation that establishes measures of legal responsibility for violations in the field of social partnership. In addition, the author proposed a mechanism for improving certain provisions of the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation in order to establish compliance with the applicable measures of legal liability.

Keywords: International Labor Organization, representative bodies of employees and employers, social responsibility, parties of social partnership, functions of legal responsibility


POST-CRISIS ERA OF SOCIAL REFORMS: WHAT CHANGES DOES THE NATURE OF THE GREAT 2008-2020 CRISIS DICTATE?

Author(s): V. G. Koltashov

Annotation: The article examines why the era following the global economic crisis of 2008-2020 will turn out to be a time of social reforms. The authors research of major economic crises allowed him to predict the current crisis, including all its waves, and define the changes that the crisis dictates to society. These changes primarily include social and economic reforms, the main direction of which is to provide protection to domestic producers and create an internal market for the sale of their products. The latter makes it possible to turn from neoliberal-type reforms to reforms that reflect the interests of the broad strata of society. The author in his article notes that the struggle for progressive changes will take place in the context of competition between the old and new (mainly Eurasian) centers of capitalism, the growth of the states influence in the economy, and much else generated by the great crisis. The author also analyzes the nature of such crises that replace the long waves of development of the global economy. This issue, which the author has been dealing with for a number of years, is further examined in his monograph called Capitalism of Crises and Revolutions: How Formation Epochs Change, Long Waves Are Born, Restorations Die and Neomercantilism Comes (2019).

Keywords: neomercantilism, crisis, big crisis, social reforms, trade unions, society


FEATURES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL: SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT

Author(s): Zhukova N.A., Shabalov V.V.

Annotation: The authors in their article consider new methodological approaches to crisis management and determine the possibility of their application at the regional level. Russian authors in their research develop additional classifications of crises and methods of crisis management, analyze the conditions and tasks that must be solved in its process, pay attention to errors, and describe their consequences and ways to eliminate them. Modern approaches of foreign scientists are mainly focused on the need to create an attractive image and a positive goodwill of the agent of management as a new tool for crisis management, which allows attracting additional investment and improving the effectiveness of crisis measures. Researchers of regional management pay attention to relatively new methods of supporting regions, one of which is public-private partnership. Based on the analysis of regional statistics and the practice of using public-private partnership as a crisis management tool for a specific region of the Russian Federation - the Udmurt Republic, the authors conclude that the use of new methodological approaches in regional crisis management is productive, and determine ways to further improve it, considering the recommendations of Russian and foreign researchers.

Keywords: methodology of crisis management, regional policy, depressed regions, methods of state support, public-private partnership, goodwill, image


FOREIGN EXPERIENCE IN REGULATING PROCESSES IN INVESTMENT OF PENSION ASSETS

Author(s): T. S. Esaulkova

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of foreign experience in regulating investment of pension assets. This is particularly relevant in the context of another round of pension reform being carried out in our country. There are two basic models of regulation of investment of pension assets that currently exist in the world practice. The author disclosed the key features of the first model based on restrictions imposed by the state regulator of the pension market in relation to the type of assets, the structure of the investment portfolio and transactions. The author revealed the specificity of state regulation in this model, which comes to the supervision of compliance with the requirements set by the state regulator. The author described the specific features of the second model of regulation based on the rules of a "prudent person" and prudential supervision of participants in the collective investment market. The author justified the main tasks of the state regulator in this model, namely tracking possible risks in the activities of pension funds (other participants in the pension market) and minimizing or eliminating these risks. The author of the article concludes that foreign experience is of great importance for Russia, where risk-based supervision is gradually introduced, and there are some restrictions on the investment portfolio of pension funds.

Keywords: pension assets, investment, pension funds, regulation, profitability


IMAGE OF A SCIENTIST IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD IN THE VIEWS OF STUDENTS

Author(s): E.V.Dianina, O.I.Nikuradze

Annotation: The article is devoted to the study of the image of a scientist in Russia and foreign countries. The article considers the theory of the concept of image, the system problems of the Russian science influencing the formation of the image of a modern scientist, as well as the factors affecting the perception of the image of a scientist by society. The purpose of this article is to compare the perception of the image of a scientist by the students in Russia and foreign countries, as well as to provide practical guidance for improving such image in Russia. The article presents the results of the authors sociological study of the image of a scientist perception by the students in Russia and foreign countries conducted from May to December 2019. Through the method of associations, portraits of a modern scientist were compiled through the eyes of students in Russia and abroad, and the degree of interest of young people in scientific activities was revealed. Based on the results of the study, recommendations were developed to increase the authority of scientists in society as a whole and among young people in particular, which will contribute to the formation of a positive image of scientists in our country. The results obtained can be used by the management of higher and secondary educational institutions, the Ministry of education and science, cultural workers, media representatives and public figures.

Keywords: image of a scientist, scientific activity, stereotypes, image formation, association method, youth


TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES IN THE LABOR MARKET AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATE TRAINING

Author(s): P. I. Ananchenkova

Annotation: The article deals with the issues that reflect the impact of modern global transformation processes in the labor market on the development of corporate training practices. The author notes that corporate training changes depending on the demand for certain professional skills and competencies by employers. And digitalization is the main trend that affects both changes in the labor market and in-house training systems. Today, the fourth industrial revolution generates the main trends in the economy of production and services, and in the social sphere. Within the labor economy, the most pronounced impact of digitalization can be seen in employment trends, professional skills, the disappearance and emergence of professions, and mechanisms for the reproduction of professional competencies. The author in her article considers the main models of corporate training that contribute to the reproduction of corporate competencies and skills that reflect the needs of the employer in the conditions of technological and organizational changes. At the same time, the author concludes that corporate training programs not only contribute to employee retention, but also provide cyclical reproduction of relevant professional skills, which together affect the companys competitiveness, given fierce competition and dynamic transformation of social reality.

Keywords: labor market, transformation, trends, corporate training, professional competencies, skills


EURASIAN TRANSPORT INTEGRATION AS A KEY FACTOR IN INCREASING THE TRANSIT POTENTIAL OF THE EEU

Author(s): Pogarskaya A.S., Konfino K. V.

Annotation: Discussion of global integration projects in the field of transport is reduced to the involvement of national transport routes in a single international system, which can lead to the formation of the EEU as a link between Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. In this regard, the formation of a common market for transport services and the creation of a unified transport system is among the main tasks of the EEU, which emphasizes the relevance of this topic. Of course, the introduction of a unified information space requires the use of smart contracts and the Internet of things based on blockchain technology.

Keywords: transport integration, transit potential, digital transport corridors, digitalization of transport processes, transport and economic balance


INTEGRATION OF THE SOFTWAGE PACKAGE PORTAL SEA PORT AND THE ELECTRONIC DECLARATION CENTER WITH BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY (FOR EXAMPLE PORT OF NOVOROSSIYSK)

Author(s): Golovan T.V., Tonkonog V.V.

Annotation: Without a high level of administration at sea checkpoints across the state border and auxiliary information systems, work in seaports cannot be carried out at the required level. In this regard, annually, state control bodies, in particular customs authorities, implement various programs to improve the existing platform of marine infrastructure. According to the roadmap for improving customs administration, the plan of activities laid down the creation from 2018 to 2020 of regional electronic customs and Electronic Declaration Centers. Thus, when the registration of declarations for goods in electronic format is uninterrupted, the creation of electronic customs has become possible, and in 2018 the first electronic customs were launched and the volume of documentation of participants in foreign economic activity, which had to be sorted manually before, quickly passes document control in the electronic environment. With all this, the control over the movement of goods through checkpoints and the provision of relevant information and documents, especially by sea, remains quite relevant. Having analyzed the possibility of protecting data used by developed or developing foreign countries, it seems advisable to propose a new system for protecting customs operations related to the registration of goods declarations, the issuance of unique transportation identification numbers (UTIN) during preliminary declaration, which is mandatory for all types transport, bank transfers, the provision of electronic documents based on blockchain technology. Thus, if we integrate the SPP Portal Sea Port and the Electronic Declaration Centers with blockchain technology or create an alternative platform based on the inherent capabilities of the SPP Portal Sea Port and the electronic data warehouse, we can say with confidence that it will be possible to simplify many processes in sea checkpoints across the state border of the Russian Federation, since customs officials will not have to check certain documents upon arrival of vessels of foreign navigation in port, as blockchain technology ensures that all documents in the system are originals.

Keywords: sea checkpoints, customs authorities, roadmap, declaration for goods, Electronic Declaration Center, SPP Portal Sea Port, sea transport, blockchain technology


Issue #1 of year 2020

DIGITAL MARKETING AS A FACTOR OF COMPETITIVENESS OF A MODERN UNIVERSITY

Author(s): Usick S.P.

Annotation: In modern world living in digitalization era diversity of social processes and events virtually cannot develop without respective digital component. Influence of new digital technologies is more sharply evident in economic field, at individual industrial markets where they act both, as locomotive and barrier in terms of sustainable development of market subjects. Field of education including the professional one is full scale participant of market processes for long, acting in accordance with basic economic laws of demand and offer. Thus sustainable become those educational institutions which most fully and efficiently satisfy consumer demand. In other words, at market of educational services most competitive are institutions that offer most demanded educational services for affordable prices. Digitalization becomes not only technologically but socially conditioning factor for development of marketing technologies aimed at improvement of attractiveness of educational institutions at modern market of educational services. Digital marketing becomes necessary and often main form of marketing communications and events aimed at improvement of image, awareness, brand of modern university. Range of DM technologies is continuously growing and improved forcing educational institutions to continuously work on improvement of their image policy.

Keywords: education, universities, marketing, promotion, digital marketing, digital technologies


PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF DIGITALIZATION Part 1. Digital transformation of education

Author(s): Tkachenko E.N.

Annotation: The article discusses the problems and prospects of the digital transformation of education (DTE), which is an inevitable process that contributes to a change in the content, methods and organizational forms of educational activity, developing in the context of digitalization of a rapidly changing educational environment. This process sets as its main goal the solution of socio-economic development of Russia under the influence of the fourth industrial revolution and the formation of a digital economy. In the modern world, the introduction of digital technologies contributes to qualitative changes both in the manufacturing sector and in industry markets, involving in the process of digitalization and education. The basis for the production of publicly available individualized products is the combination of previously established material production and the use of digital technologies, expanding the range of methods based on the use of artificial intelligence and the active spread of the Internet of things. Against the background of the ongoing changes, it becomes obvious that under the influence of the digitalization process and the transition to the digital age, relevant specialists will be required, the training of which should be carried out in the conditions of the transformation of education and the technological revolution with the help of the transition from mass education of the entire population to high-quality education, based on the comprehensive development of the personality of a single person.

Keywords: digital transformation of education, information and educational environment, digital economy, artificial intelligence, Internet of things


The Problems of Information Security in the Economy

Author(s): A. A. Sokolovsky

Annotation: The article deals with the problem of preserving the confidentiality of business information in the implementation of information security of an economic entity and its most complete and comprehensive economic protection. In this regard, the author in his article provides a detailed description of internal confidential business information, and reveals its significance for the effective functioning of an economic entity. The author specifies various challenges and threats arising in the information sphere. The author proves that in order to ensure the information security of an economic entity, it is necessary to protect it from economic espionage and pursue a rational policy in this regard. The author describes the main manifestations of unfair competition in the form of espionage. The author considers the essence and content of information security, and determines its place and role in protecting confidential business information and trade secrets. The author identifies the main directions and ways of countering illegal encroachments on confidential business information and economic espionage. In addition, the author in his article pays special attention to ensuring the preservation of confidential business information in small and medium-sized businesses.

Keywords: information, digital technologies, information technologies, information security, information security policy, economic security


DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE SPHERE OF SMALL BUSINESS

Author(s): V. N. Skvortsov

Annotation: Most researchers reasonably believe that the trade union movement is currently in a state of transition around the world, due to the objective transformation of the institution of wage labor. In a post-industrial society, the labor force is increasingly moving and concentrating in those sectors and professions, where collective representation is much more difficult to organize. Small business is one of such sectors in Russia. Established in the wake of perestroika relations, small business as a sector of the economy has its own specifics; it is a diversified business occupying its niches in various industries and areas of activity. In the near and medium term, the role and importance of small business will increase significantly; the upcoming large-scale changes in the economy, such as automation, robotics, modernization and digitalization will lead to a significant release of active labor, for which the only acceptable alternative will be a small business sector. New economic realities will require trade unions not only to search for new approaches, technologies and tools in their activities, but also to combine efforts with the government, business, political forces and public associations in order to create an effective system of social and labor relations in small businesses. The author in his article identifies and defines priority areas of activity for overcoming existing contradictions and increasing the role and importance of trade unions in the development of social partnership in the sphere of regulation of social and labor relations at small enterprises in the economic conditions of modern Russia.

Keywords: small business, trade union movement, social and labor relations, credit conditions, administrative barriers, shadow sector, social partnership institution


COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED EDUCATION SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

Author(s): A. I. Satdykov

Annotation: The author in his article provides an analysis of domestic and foreign practices of advanced education. The author reviews the main scientific schools that study this phenomenon and defines the concept of advanced education from the point of view of a practical technocratic approach. The author provides a retrospective analysis of the main approaches to the formation of a system of advanced education in Russia. The author demonstrates that despite numerous initiatives and projects, advanced education is not systematic, and many methodological problems remain unresolved. The author pays special attention to the analysis of the practice in foreign countries the European Union, the United States and Chile. The author considers three main models, namely the model of liberal adaptation to the needs of the labor market of educational organizations (USA, UK), the model of the state regulatory system (Spain), and the model of corporate training (Chile). The author reveals that developed countries of the European Union and the United States have created analytical systems to determine the main trends in the labor market in terms of used and demanded competencies. Based on that and using quantitative and qualitative methods, forecasting is carried out. The author concludes that it is necessary to use the methodological materials of CEDEFOP and O*NET in the development of advanced education centers in the regions of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: advanced education, personnel, foreign experience, comparative analysis, system


The Public Service in Russia as a Social Institution of Public Regulation

Author(s): O. N. Ordina

Annotation: The article is devoted to the analysis of the public service of the Russian Federation as one of the social institutions, which is a connecting bridge from the state to society. This obliges civil servants to meet the requirements imposed on them, and provides an opportunity to show their creative potential. The author in her article describes the main characteristics of the public service of the Russian Federation, such as the unity of legal and organizational foundations, stability, hierarchy of the structure, professionalism and competence of personnel. The author classifies positions. The author formulates some recommendations for building up an effective system of administrative and public bodies in Russia that meets the modern requirements of the countrys public service system. The author considers such a negative phenomenon as corruption, which reduces the effectiveness of the entire state power, decreasing the level of trust in it of the population. The author demonstrates the abilities of the state and society in their fight against corruption, which hinders the effective functioning of all mechanisms of the country and impedes the implementation of social transformations and modernization of the economy. The author analyzes the social function of the countrys civil servants, which should be aimed not only at increasing the welfare and quality of life of all categories of citizens, but also at forming their desire and ability to receive this assistance.

Keywords: public service, professionalism, civil society, jural state, social policy, public regulation


THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ACCOUNTING FOR INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT Part 1. Theoretical foundations for determining informal employment (main scientific approaches)

Author(s): D.V. Nekipelova

Annotation: Estimates of the scale of spread informal employment are a key indicator in the development of the main directions of its state-social regulation. Over the past decades since the discovery of the phenomenon of hidden economic activity as a component of the urban employment structure in developing countries, the concept of informal employment has evolved from its description as a way of survival for marginalized segments of the population to hidden entrepreneurship, which unfairly competes with the main market. Based on the prevailing paradigms, the International Labor Organization sought to develop a universal methodology for accounting for informal employment, able to most fully cover all its manifestations and consider national characteristics. To this end, methodological recommendations on the accounting of informal employment were developed and implemented. In 2002, the concept of the informal sector was expanded to the concept of the informal economy, covering not only the activities of informal production units (enterprises), but also informal jobs, as well as the activities of informal individuals (self-employed). The article discusses the evolution of ideas about informal employment in the framework of basic scientific approaches. The author assesses the methodology for accounting for informal employment in Russia for compliance with international standards adopted by the International Labor Organization.

Keywords: informal employment, production approach, legalistic approach, informal sector theory, small-scale production, labor market


ECONOMIC MECHANISM PROVIDING PROTECTION AGAINST RISKS OF RUSSIAN EMERCOM EMPLOYEES THROUGH MANDATORY STATE INSURANCE

Author(s): Molchanova E.S. , Dosugova A.V.

Annotation: This article discusses specific features of social protection of militarypersonnel and equal status persons representing complex economical mechanism consisting of combination of relatively individual elements one of which is state insurance. Special attention is drawn to issues of social protection of Russian EMERCOM system employees that is of vast importance for the safety of state and public. Article provides analysis of specifics of mandatory state insurance as one of prospective tools for protection against risks of causing harm to life and health of EMERCOM personnel. Special attention is drawn to issues of organization and control over provision of social protection of EMERCOM personnels life and health, i.e. priority objectives of economical mechanism of control over safety of their life activity. Covered are issues of protection of EMERCOM personnel in case of damaged caused thereby to property of citizens, enterprises and entities in process of emergency liquidation. Professional activity of the Russian EMERCOM personnel is of high public significance and requires from state implementation of adequate measures providing for social equity and protection of EMERCOM personnel. In each civilized country such position of state is a key criterium for organization of social protection of military personnel in respect of their life and health.

Keywords: economical mechanism, social protection, life and health risks, mandatory state insurance, EMERCOM


SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREELANCE IN THE CONDITIONS OF DIGITALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY

Author(s): N. S .Matveeva

Annotation: The author in her article deals with the changes in the modern Russian labor market caused by ongoing worldwide external transformations, internal changes in the system of socio-economic relations and in the structure of the national economy that broaden due to the use of digital technologies in the implementation of production processes and new services in the information and analytical sphere. All the above factors contributed to the development of remote employment in various sectors of the economy. The data provided in the article indicates that the number of freely employed people in modern Russia has increased, their age and gender composition has changed, and the scope of their work has significantly expanded. The author in her article focuses on the social aspects of the development of freelance in modern Russia. The author analyzes in detail the advantages of freelance in social terms, namely: a freelancer creates a workplace for himself, forms behavioral attitudes of an entrepreneurial type, reduces his/her dependence on an employer, and can combine several jobs and draw high income, etc. At the same time, freelancers face a number of problems, in particular, lack of legal norms in civil and labor legislation related to this category of employees, instability in getting orders, a large number of functions they perform, and their social loneliness. The authors conclusions are supported by extensive statistical data and analytical materials.

Keywords: labor market, free employment, freelance, digitalization of the economy, information and communication technologies


The Main Areas for Improving Legislative Framework for Social Partnership

Author(s): M. A. Malyshev

Annotation: The author in his article deals with social partnership as a multi-faceted, dynamically developing phenomenon that constantly causes new problems that require scientific understanding and development of a mechanism for their resolution. In this regard, the author focuses on the fact that the adoption of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation promoted classification of the legislation on social partnership. This helped to identify new directions for its development. To a large extent, it determined the development of the main directions for improving its legislative framework in terms of updating scientific research and practical activities in the field of regulating social and labor relations. At the same time, the author pays attention to the fact that social partnership in Russia was formed and developed taking into account international experience gained in this area. The author notes that social partnership does not have any own areas of development that are outside the social sphere and social relations of the development of Russian society as a whole. The author states that it is necessary to further improve the Labor Code of the Russian Federation and other legal acts regulating the sphere of social partnership. The author finally concludes that in modern conditions, the effectiveness of social partnership largely depends on the consolidation of all social strata of society, on the level of social protection of employees and on a qualitatively new level of remuneration for their work.

Keywords: social partnership, legislative framework, social and labor relations, efficiency, social security, cooperation


TECHNOLOGICAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MARITIME UNIVERSITIES MANAGEMENT AND MARINE SPECIALISTS TRAINING OPTIMIZATION

Author(s): Makashina I.I., Marichev I.V., Filatova E.V.

Annotation: Shipping is still the most important mode of transport for world trade, and success of the world's shipping industry ultimately depends on seafarers. The aim is that everyone who works on board ships should be properly trained and educated, not for certification purposes, but for the safety of life and the safety of the environment. The paper presents different approaches applied to the management system in maritime education. The proposed matrix form of the structure of the educational space clearly represents at a given level of concreteness a list of all components (objects of space) that are needed to fully provide the educational process with the conditions for performing productive educational actions. Arrangement of the network-centric management system in maritime education allows for the distribution and processing of information, namely: the collection of information from different sources of all structures included in the system of the marine industry, in whole, and in the system of Maritime education, in particular; fast and high-quality processing of information in real time with the display of the real situation with a high degree of reliability; ensuring the continuous accumulation and storage of information and a single information space for the information exchange of all elements of the network-centric management system. The paper shows that due to the strengthening of virtual trends arising under the influence of information technologies, and their impact on the participants of educational interaction, new relations among them and problems in this connection arise. The prospects of the virtualization impact on the further development of Maritime education are shown and new ways of solving mentioned problems are discussed.

Keywords: matrix approach, transport space, maritime education, educational space, quality training of specialist


The Problems of Training Highly Skilled Personnel for the Regional Economy in the Conditions of Digitalization (by Way of Example of the Orenburg Region)

Author(s): N. A. Mazharova, N. V. Speshilova, D. A. Andrienko

Annotation: The authors in their article deal with the problems of training highly skilled personnel for the economy of the Orenburg region in the conditions of digitalization. The authors set out the key features, problems and prospects for the development of the labor market in the region given a global change in various processes and mechanisms for managing production, logistics, trade and public administration. The authors reveal the reasons for a sharp increase (2005-2013) and decline (2014-2017) in the birth rate due to the countrys demographic policy and the social and economic situation in the 90s. The authors analyze the dynamics of labor force and the structure of the employed and unemployed by level of education as the digital economy requires professional labor force. The author forecast that starting from 2018, there will be a reduction in job offers for low-skilled employees by 5% annually in the region. At the same time, real unemployment will grow by as many more. The authors conclude that despite difficulties with demographics and a predictable increase in unemployment, a wide range of activities is carried out in the Orenburg region aimed at training highly qualified specialists required in the conditions of a new scientific and technical revolution and the formation of the digital world.

Keywords: industry 4.0, fourth industrial revolution, digital economy, population, labor market, age structure, labor force


THE MODERN GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS

Author(s): K. M. Dzhabarov

Annotation: The author in his article analyzes the government regulation of public-private partnership as one of the effective mechanisms of interaction between the state and business in solving the most important problems in the social and economic development of the country. Effective and mutually beneficial partnership between government agencies and the business community is one of the most pressing problems of modern development. This is primarily because there are various scientific approaches to the categorical apparatus, and because certain forms of interaction are attributed to public-private partnership, as well as due to the lack of practical experience in implementing public-private projects. The author identifies the main models of regulation of various forms of partnership (organizational model, financing model, cooperation model), and highlights the shortcomings of existing regulation, such as inconsistency of legislation at all levels; loopholes in existing legal norms; a low level of legal elaboration of existing normative legal acts; lack of clear boundaries of industries and areas, for which it is permissible to apply public-private partnership mechanisms). The author finally suggests ways to eliminate the above shortcomings, such as conducting a thorough analysis of legal regulation in the most successful countries; amending the effective Russian legislation or drafting new laws; establishing distinctive features in relation to private partners, etc.).

Keywords: public-private partnership, business, socio-economic development, forms and models of public-private partnership


STATE REGULATION OF SMALL BUSINESS IN RUSSIA

Author(s): E. E. Barsegyan

Annotation: The author in his article considers some main problems of internal and external business environment by way of example of state regulation of small business in the conditions of transformation of the Russian economy systems. The subject of the research is small business as one of the factors of development of the economy of the Russian Federation. The subject of the study is the emerging relationship between public authorities and representatives of small businesses in the Russian Federation. The purpose of this work is to analyze the current state of small business and areas of improvement of state regulation of small business in modern economic conditions. The author considers the factors that hinder the development of entrepreneurs initiatives on the territory of the Russian Federation. For sustainable and optimal functioning of small business, it is necessary to pay attention to the unfavorable investment climate, excessive tax burden, lack of proper support for start-up entrepreneurs, as well as poor information, scientific and psychological support for business entities. Along with these negative factors of the economic system, one can mention conflicting and poorly thought-out legal acts, as well as incorrect and quick-and-dirty work of watchdog bodies. Based on the analysis of statistical data provided in this article, the author arrives at a conclusion that in order to promote enterprise, it is necessary to review the mechanisms of administrative regulation and combat red tape that hinders small business development.

Keywords: small business, state regulation, red tape, optimization, development


REMOTE JOBS IN THE TRANSPORT INDUSTRY AS A PROMISING DIRECTION OF EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES

Author(s): Arestova Y.A., Tonkonog V.V.

Annotation: The transport sector is the most important component of the infrastructure of any state, which is directly related to the creation of favorable conditions for the development of the national economy. It should be noted that in the field of transport there is a wide range of companies and organizations that provide both direct and intermediary services. This fact is due to the high percentage of employment in the industry and the competitiveness of jobs on the labor exchange. In this regard, it is advisable to consider the development of such an urgent direction of state policy as the implementation of labor law in relation to the transport sector of such a social category of citizens as people with disabilities and the limited possibilities of health (hereinafter - LPH). One of the obvious directions in solving the problem of successful socialization of people with disabilities is the creation of conditions for unhindered movement, that is, first of all, the removal of construction barriers, which would provide free access for people with disabilities to social infrastructure: residential, public, industrial buildings, structures and premises, places of recreation and leisure. The article investigates both the specifics of the functioning of transport enterprises and the legal mechanism of realization of the rights of people with LPH. As a result, recommendations for the introduction and expansion of tools for the employment of people with LPH in the organization of the transport sector have been developed.

Keywords: the transport sector, the limited possibilities of health, employment, remote technology, employment


THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF COST OPTIMIZATION TO CREATE HEALTHY AND SAFE WORKING CONDITIONS

Author(s): Alekina E.V., Yagovkin G.N.

Annotation: Working conditions are an important socio-economic category, which is formed by all socio-economic and organizational and technical factors affecting the preparation of a person for active participation in work. Work without accidents and industrial injuries seems to be an objective necessity in modern society. Improving working conditions is one of the elements of the development of socio-economic relations between employers and employees. However, some enterprises save money on improving working conditions, considering that the costs for these purposes are economically inefficient. In this regard, we have developed a quantitative approach to the analysis of the economic activity of the enterprise to create healthy and safe working conditions and optimize them. A graphical interpretation of the dependence of cost indicators and possible damage from the consequences of accidents is presented. Using the example of statistical data of the Samara region, the correlations of funds spent on measures to improve working conditions and safety per employee and the number of victims of industrial accidents in accidents are shown. The proposed methodology makes it possible to carry out an economic analysis of the costs of improving working conditions correlated with damage, and determine their optimal ratios.

Keywords: cost optimization, working conditions, quantitative analysis, damage, accident


ECONOMIC MECHANISM PROVIDING PROTECTION AGAINST RISKS OF RUSSIAN EMERCOM EMPLOYEES THROUGH MANDATORY STATE INSURANCE

Author(s): Molchanova E.S., Dosugova A.V.

Annotation: This article discusses specific features of social protection of military personnel and equal-status persons representing complex economical mechanism consisting of combination of relatively individual elements one of which is state insurance. Special attention is drawn to issues of social protection of Russian EMERCOM system employees that is of vast importance for the safety of state and public. Article provides analysis of specifics of mandatory state insurance as one of prospective tools for protection against risks of causing harm to life and health of EMERCOM personnel. Special attention is drawn to issues of organization and control over provision of social protection of EMERCOM personnels life and health, i.e. priority objectives of economical mechanism of control over safety of their life activity. Covered are issues of protection of EMERCOM personnel in case of damaged caused thereby to property of citizens, enterprises and entities in process of emergency liquidation. Professional activity of the Russian EMERCOM personnel is of high public significance and requires from state implementation of adequate measures providing for social equity and protection of EMERCOM personnel. In each civilized country such position of state is a key criterium for organization of social protection of military personnel in respect of their life and health

Keywords: economical mechanism, social protection, life and health risks, mandatory state insurance, EMERCOM